Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 12

» Millimeter-Wave MIMO Prototype: Measurements and Experimental Results
Abstract:
Millimeter-wave MIMO systems are one of the candidate schemes for 5G wireless standardization efforts. In this context, the main contributions of this article are three-fold. First, we describe parallel sets of measurements at identical transmit-receive location pairs with 2.9, 29 and 61 GHz carrier frequencies in indoor office, shopping mall, and outdoor settings. These measurements provide insights on propagation, blockage and material penetration losses, and the key elements necessary in system design to make mm-Wave systems viable in practice. Second, one of these elements is hybrid beamforming necessary for better link margins by reaping the array gain with large antenna dimensions. From the class of fully-flexible hybrid beamformers, we describe a robust class of directional beamformers toward meeting the high data-rate requirements of mm-Wave systems. Third, leveraging these design insights, we then describe an experimental prototype system at 28 GHz that realizes high data rates on both the downlink and uplink and robustly maintains these rates in outdoor and indoor mobility scenarios. In addition to maintaining large signal constellation sizes in spite of radio frequency challenges, this prototype leverages the directional nature of the mm-Wave channel to perform seamless beam switching and handover across mm-Wave base stations, thereby overcoming the path losses in non-line-of-sight links and blockages encountered at mm-Wave frequencies.
Autors: Vasanthan Raghavan;Andrzej Partyka;Ashwin Sampath;Sundar Subramanian;Ozge Hizir Koymen;Kobi Ravid;Juergen Cezanne;Kiran Mukkavilli;Junyi Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 202 - 209
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter-Wave TE20-Mode SIW Dual-Slot-Fed Patch Antenna Array With a Compact Differential Feeding Network
Abstract:
A millimeter-wave series–parallel patch antenna array is presented, in which the dual-slot feeding structure is handily implemented using the intrinsic field distribution of TE20 mode in substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW). One 28 GHz patch antenna element fed by the TE20-mode SIW is first designed, achieving a 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 10.2% and a simulated peak gain of 6.48 dBi. Based on the antenna element, a array with a compact series–parallel differential feeding network is developed accordingly. Due to the novel compact SIW-based series–parallel feeding network, the antenna array can achieve superior radiation performances, which is the highlight of this communication. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed antenna array are in good agreement, demonstrating a performance of 8.5% impedance bandwidth, 19.1 dBi peak gain, symmetrical radiation patterns, and low cross-polarization levels (−30 dB in E-plane and −25 dB in H-plane) in the operating frequency band of 26.65–29.14 GHz.
Autors: Huayan Jin;Wenquan Che;Kuo-Sheng Chin;Wanchen Yang;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 456 - 461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Min–Max Time Consensus Tracking With Communication Guarantee
Abstract:
In this paper, a collection of double integrator agents with bounded inputs is considered. Communication is possible between any two agents only if the inter-agent distance is less than a fixed threshold. A special node, referred to as the “leader,” generates an unknown reference trajectory to which all the other agents are required to converge in the shortest possible time. Assuming the initial communication graph to be connected, a directed spanning tree rooted at the leader is identified using a local algorithm. The dynamics of any two agents connected by an edge in the selected tree are modeled as a time-optimal pursuit–evasion game, while maintaining the inter-agent communication link. Using the corresponding feedback saddle-point strategies, local min–max time control laws for each pair of agents are formulated. For the selected tree, the proposed collection of local min–max time control strategies is shown to be the communication preserving global min–max time strategy.
Autors: Ameer K. Mulla;Debraj Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 132 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mind games
Abstract:
"Wake up, this is not a test," intones a voice as the virtual reality game Awakening begins. Your game character is a child trapped in a nefarious government lab, and as you scan the room you see a variety of objects lying on the floor, each flashing with light. You focus your mental attention on a block, and it rises up and rotates in the air before you. Then you focus on a mirror on the wall, and the block hurtles toward it and smashes the glass, revealing a scrawled sequence of numbers beneath. You notice a keypad by the door with numbers that are also subtly flashing. Using only your Jedi powers, you focus on certain digits in the correct sequence to open the door.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 40 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MINLP Probabilistic Scheduling Model for Demand Response Programs Integrated Energy Hubs
Abstract:
In this paper, an optimal probabilistic scheduling model of energy hubs operations is presented. The scheduling of energy hub determines the energy carriers to be purchased as input and converted or stored, in order to meet the energy requests, while minimizing the total hub's cost. However, as many other engineering endeavors, future operating criteria of energy hubs could not be forecasted with certainty. Load and price uncertainties are the most unclear parameters that hub operators deal with. In this regard, this paper proposes a 2 + 1 point estimation probabilistic scheduling scheme for energy hubs with multiple energy inputs and outputs. One of the applicable tools of energy hubs to have an efficient participation in the liberalized power market with volatile prices is demand response programs (DRPs). While there is plenty of experience in investigating the effect of DRP, it is electricity DRP that receives increasing attention by research and industry. Therefore, the proposed DRP investigates the effect of both responsive thermal and electric loads in reducing the total cost and participation of different facilities in supplying multiple loads. The proposed model envisages the most technical constraints of converters and storages. Several test systems have been investigated in order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results verify the capability of the proposed model in covering the energy hub time-varying output demands as well as the economic advantages of implementing the suggested strategy. In addition, the results are compared with 2 point estimate method and Monte Carlo simulation.
Autors: Manijeh Alipour;Kazem Zare;Mehdi Abapour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 79 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigating BTI-Induced Degradation in STT-MRAM Sensing Schemes
Abstract:
Spin-transfer torque magnetic RAM (STT-MRAM), which uses a magnetic tunnel junction to store binary data, is a promising memory technology. With many benefits, such as low leakage power, high density, high endurance, and nonvolatility, it has been explored as an SRAM replacement for cache design or a DRAM replacement for main memory. Meanwhile, along with the continuous shrinking of CMOS process technology, the bias temperature instability (BTI) effect has become a major reliability issue. Prior work has investigated the influence of the BTI effect on the SRAM sense amplifier, but no investigation has been done for the STT-MRAM sense amplifier. Therefore, this paper investigates the BTI effect on STT-MRAM sense amplifiers. We propose a majority-based technique and an alternative sensing technique to reduce circuit degradation. To further improve sensing delay, we propose using forward body bias (FBB) on an access transistor with a positive voltage. Extensive simulation results are done to show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 10.61% and 4.35%, respectively, on average, with the majority-based technique. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 4.42% and 1.83%, respectively, on average, using the alternative sensing technique. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 15.37% and 6.25%, respectively, on average, by using both techniques simultaneously. When using the majority-based and alternative sensing techniques with the FBB technique, the sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be improved by 29.93% and 57.67%, respectively, on average. We also analyze the BTI-induced degradation of a high-performance sense amplifier and a low power sense amplifier with the proposed techniques. The simulatio- results show that our proposed technique and simulation flow can be easily extended to other sense amplifiers.
Autors: Ing-Chao Lin;Yun Kae Law;Yuan Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 50 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigating Power Fluctuations in Electric Ship Propulsion With Hybrid Energy Storage System: Design and Analysis
Abstract:
Shipboard electric propulsion systems experience large power and torque fluctuations on their drive shaft due to propeller rotational motion and waves. This paper explores new solutions to address these fluctuations by integrating a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and exploring energy management (EM) strategies. The HESS combines battery packs with ultracapacitor banks. Two strategies for real-time EM of HESS are considered: one splits the power demand such that high- and low-frequency power fluctuations are compensated by ultracapacitors and batteries, respectively; another considers the HESS as a single entity and designs an EM strategy to coordinate the operations of the ultracapacitors and batteries. For both strategies, model predictive control is used to address power tracking and energy saving under various operating constraints. To quantitatively analyze the performance of HESS and its associated controls, a propeller and ship dynamic model, which captures the underlying physical behavior, is established to support the control development and system optimization. Power fluctuation mitigation and HESS loss minimization, the main objectives, are evaluated in different sea conditions. Simulation results show that the coordination within HESS provides substantial benefits in terms of reducing fluctuations and losses.
Autors: Jun Hou;Jing Sun;Heath F. Hofmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 93 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixing It Up: A Double-Balanced Mixer with Wide RF and IF Bandwidth
Abstract:
This article presents the design details of a wide-band, high-dynamic-range passive gallium arsenide (GaAs) mixer submitted for the Student Design Competition (SDC) held during the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium in Honolulu, Hawaii, this past May. The target of our research was to achieve a wide-band mixer with high dynamic range and zero power consumption. The "High-Dynamic-Range Mixer" SDC was sponsored by Technical Coordination Committee MTT-22.
Autors: Tiedi Zhang;Xiansuo Liu;Yuehang Xu;Lei Wang;Ruimin Xu;Bo Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 106 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ML-Based Iterative Approach for Blind Frequency Domain Equalization and Combination Over Sparse Channels
Abstract:
This letter deals with blind spatial diversity equalization and combination of sparse channels. The equalization and combination problem of multiple signals is modeled as the maximum likelihood estimation of frequency domain symbol sequence from incomplete observations, and solved by means of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Closed-form expression of the equalization output is obtained, which shows that the complicated problem of signal equalization and combination in multipath channels is converted to the weighted summation of each discrete-frequency signals, eliminating the need of complicated maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) or de-convolution demanded by time domain equalization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables evident performance improvement in terms of symbol error rate especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values and short signal lengths compared with a typical scheme.
Autors: Kai Zhang;Hongyi Yu;Yunpeng Hu;Zhixiang Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 193 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mode-Target Games: Reactive Synthesis for Control Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a class of linear temporal logic (LTL) specifications for which the problem of synthesizing controllers can be solved in polynomial time. The new class of specifications is an LTL fragment that we term Mode Target (MT) and is inspired by numerous control applications where there are modes and corresponding (possibly multiple) targets for each mode. We formulate the problem of synthesizing a controller enforcing an MT specification as a game and provide an algorithm that requires symbolic steps, where is the number of states in the game graph, and is the number of targets corresponding to mode .
Autors: Ayca Balkan;Moshe Vardi;Paulo Tabuada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 196 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Compression and Acceleration for Deep Neural Networks: The Principles, Progress, and Challenges
Abstract:
In recent years, deep neural networks (DNNs) have received increased attention, have been applied to different applications, and achieved dramatic accuracy improvements in many tasks. These works rely on deep networks with millions or even billions of parameters, and the availability of graphics processing units (GPUs) with very high computation capability plays a key role in their success. For example, Krizhevsky et al. [1] achieved breakthrough results in the 2012 ImageNet Challenge using a network containing 60 million parameters with five convolutional layers and three fully connected layers. Usually, it takes two to three days to train the whole model on the ImagetNet data set with an NVIDIA K40 machine. In another example, the top face-verification results from the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) data set were obtained with networks containing hundreds of millions of parameters, using a mix of convolutional, locally connected, and fully connected layers [2], [3]. It is also very time-consuming to train such a model to obtain a reasonable performance. In architectures that only rely on fully connected layers, the number of parameters can grow to billions [4].
Autors: Yu Cheng;Duo Wang;Pan Zhou;Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 126 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Free iPID Control for Glycemia Regulation of Type-1 Diabetes
Abstract:
Objective: The objective is to design a fully automated glycemia controller of Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) in both fasting and postprandial phases on a large number of virtual patients. Methods: A model-free intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (iPID) is used to infuse insulin. The feasibility of iPID is tested in silico on two simulators with and without measurement noise. The first simulator is derived from a long-term linear time-invariant model. The controller is also validated on the UVa/Padova metabolic simulator on 10 adults under 25 runs/subject for noise robustness test. Results: It was shown that without measurement noise, iPID mimicked the normal pancreatic secretion with a relatively fast reaction to meals as compared to a standard PID. With the UVa/Padova simulator, the robustness against CGM noise was tested. A higher percentage of time in target was obtained with iPID as compared to standard PID with reduced time spent in hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Two different T1D simulators tests showed that iPID detects meals and reacts faster to meal perturbations as compared to a classic PID. The intelligent part turns the controller to be more aggressive immediately after meals without neglecting safety. Further research is suggested to improve the computation of the intelligent part of iPID for such systems under actuator constraints. Any improvement can impact the overall performance of the model-free controller. Significance: The simple structure iPID is a step for PID-like controllers since it combines the classic PID nice properties with new adaptive features.
Autors: Taghreed MohammadRidha;Mourad Aït-Ahmed;Lucy Chaillous;Michel Krempf;Isabelle Guilhem;Jean-Yves Poirier;Claude H. Moog;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 199 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Predictive Control-Based AGC for Multi-Terminal HVDC-Connected AC grids
Abstract:
Multi-terminal high-voltage direct current (MTDC) grids are seen as the enabling technology in the development of massive scale international grids such as the European supergrid. It is expected that these grids can play a significant role in regulating ac system frequencies. To date, many proportional-integral (PI) controller-based techniques have been proposed for frequency regulation in ac MTDC-connected grids. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is proposed as a means of implementing automatic generation control, while minimizing dc grid power losses. The advantages of using MPC versus PI are highlighted with regard to improvements in both frequency and dc grid regulation, while explicitly considering both delays and dc voltage constraints.
Autors: Paul McNamara;Federico Milano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1036 - 1048
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Reference Adaptive Sliding Surface Design for Nonlinear Systems
Abstract:
The paper introduces a new model reference adaptive sliding surface design algorithm in order to determine possible nonlinear time-varying “sliding surface” for a general class of nonlinear systems. A model reference sliding surface is first designed for a reference nonlinear system by using the state-dependent Riccati equation techniques. Then, the sliding surfaces for nonlinear systems are obtained from the reference sliding surface by using an adaptation rule. The adaptation rule to satisfy the convergence of sliding surface for the nonlinear system to that of reference one is derived. The sliding mode controller for the nonlinear plant is then designed by using the adaptive sliding surfaces. The proposed method is illustrated with an autopilot design for different missile models.
Autors: Fatma Kara;Metin U. Salamci;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 611 - 624
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Dynamic Control Allocation in a Hybrid Neuroprosthesis
Abstract:
A hybrid neuroprosthesis that combines human muscle power, elicited through functional electrical stimulation (FES), with a powered orthosis may be advantageous over a sole FES or a powered exoskeleton-based rehabilitation system. The hybrid system can conceivably overcome torque reduction due to FES-induced muscle fatigue by complementarily using torque from the powered exoskeleton. The second advantage of the hybrid system is that the use of human muscle power can supplement the powered exoskeleton’s power (motor torque) requirements; thus, potentially reducing the size and weight of a walking restoration system. To realize these advantages, however, it is unknown how to concurrently optimize desired control performance and allocation of control inputs between FES and electric motor. In this paper, a model predictive control-based dynamic control allocation (DCA) is used to allocate control between FES and the electric motor that simultaneously maintain a desired knee angle. The experimental results, depicting the performance of the DCA method while the muscle fatigues, are presented for an able-bodied participant and a participant with spinal cord injury. The experimental results showed that the motor torque recruited by the hybrid system was less than that recruited by the motor-only system, the algorithm can be easily used to allocate more control input to the electric motor as the muscle fatigues, and the muscle fatigue induced by the hybrid system was found to be less than the fatigue induced by sole FES. These results validate the aforementioned advantages of the hybrid system; thus implying the hybrid technology’s potential use in walking rehabilitation.
Autors: Nicholas A. Kirsch;Xuefeng Bao;Naji A. Alibeji;Brad E. Dicianno;Nitin Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 224 - 232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Testing of PLC Programs With Appropriate Conformance Relations
Abstract:
Numerous theoretical results have been obtained in the field of conformance testing, a very promising formal technique to improve dependability of critical systems. Nevertheless, developing on this basis programmable logic controller (PLC) test techniques that produce correct conformance verdicts requires to take into account the real technological features of PLC. This paper proposes conformance relations that meet this objective. Examples illustrate the benefits of the contribution.
Autors: Anais Guignard;Jean-Marc Faure;Gregory Faraut;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 350 - 359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Free Closed-Loop Stability Analysis: A Linear Functional Approach
Abstract:
Performing a stability analysis during the design of any electronic circuit is critical to guarantee its correct operation. A closed-loop stability analysis can be performed by analyzing the impedance presented by the circuit at a well-chosen node without internal access to the simulator. If any of the poles of this impedance lie in the complex right half-plane, the circuit is unstable. The classic way to detect unstable poles is to fit a rational model on the impedance. In this paper, a projection-based method is proposed which splits the impedance into a stable and an unstable part by projecting on an orthogonal basis of stable and unstable functions. When the unstable part lies significantly above the interpolation error of the method, the circuit is considered unstable. Working with a projection provides one, at small cost, with a first appraisal of the unstable part of the system. Both small-signal and large-signal stability analysis can be performed with this projection-based method. In the small-signal case, a low-order rational approximation can be fit on the unstable part to find the location of the unstable poles.
Autors: Adam Cooman;Fabien Seyfert;Martine Olivi;Sylvain Chevillard;Laurent Baratchart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 73 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Free Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for Provisioning Transmission-Level Services
Abstract:
Collective control of distributed energy resources (DER)—such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters or battery storage—have the potential to provide regulation services to the bulk electric grid. While optimal power flow techniques may be used to coordinate DER for this purpose, these approaches typically rely on accurate network models and a large number of system measurements. In this paper, we consider an approach that alleviates these modeling and measurement requirements. Here, we consider a two-dimensional adaptive control scheme known as extremum seeking, or ES, to perform optimization without knowledge of a model of the distribution network. We apply this scheme to enable simultaneous feeder head active power and voltage magnitude reference tracking, as well as feeder voltage regulation. From the perspective of the transmission grid, this approach essentially transforms the distribution feeder into a controllable (P,V) bus. Simulation results confirm the ability of the approach to track substation real power and voltage reference signals while maintaining distribution system voltages within acceptable tolerances.
Autors: Daniel B. Arnold;Michael D. Sankur;Matias Negrete-Pincetic;Duncan S. Callaway;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 817 - 828
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Nano Composite BaTiO3 Lithium Polymer Battery
Abstract:
Batteries are power providers for all the portable electrical and electronic devices that can also be used as energy storage system for large scale applications. In order to design lithium polymer battery with good performance, the proper exploration of its composition materials is required. In this paper, Lithium polymer battery is modeled with the BaTiO3 nanocomposite polymer electrolyte. The simulation results show better performance of Lithium concentration on the electrode surfaces and cell voltage variation characteristic when compared with the liquid and pure polymer electrolyte. The maximum lithium salt concentration is observed to be near electrode surface of BaTiO3 nano composite mixed polymer electrolyte. An experiment is conducted to study the ion conductivity of the prepared polymer sample. The experimentation results show that the addition of BaTiO 3 nano filler to mixed polymer electrolyte gained better ionic conductivity.
Autors: T. Sathyanathan;C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 161 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Passive Switching Crossbar Arrays
Abstract:
Emerging technologies have enabled efficient, high-speed realizations of ultra-dense crossbar arrays, driving the need for better insight in the transient operation of such systems. Previous work focused mostly on the effect of line resistance and its impact on steady-state response. In this paper, we develop a compact framework that includes the effects of parasitics. We use memristors as an exemplar device where interconnect parasitics (resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance) are extracted using ANSYS Q3D extractor for 5- and 50- feature sizes. A model for the crossbar is presented, considering the stray and coupling capacitive parasitics of the crossbar. The derived model is based on state-space representation and provides more insight into the behavior of crossbar arrays containing either linear or nonlinear switching devices. The framework provides a closed-form solution to evaluate Elmore delay, as well as the steady-state response of the system. Signal delay is evaluated and compared for both grounded and floating interconnect inputs and verified against HSPICE, showing a perfect match.
Autors: Mohammed E. Fouda;Ahmed M. Eltawil;Fadi Kurdahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 270 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Damping Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Based DC Grid
Abstract:
A generic small-signal model of modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC grid is established and a DC virtual impedance damping control to suppress the resonance and instability is proposed. The averaged-value model (AVM) of MMC is employed to derive the Thévenin equivalent model of the converter from its DC side using the power-balancing principle considering the dynamics of phase-locked loop (PLL) of the interconnected ac system. The single section π-typed line model is selected to develop the nodal admittance equations of the DC network in s domain. The stability criterion of the DC grid is given after establishing the generic linearization model. The key factors affecting the DC grid's stability are identified using the root locus method and participation factors analysis. The parameters and the performances of the damping controller are designed and studied. Electromagnetic transient simulation model and RT-LAB real-time simulation are used to validate that the proposed damping control can suppress the instability of the DC grid and improve its operating performance.
Autors: Yunfeng Li;Guangfu Tang;Jun Ge;Zhiyuan He;Hui Pang;Jie Yang;Yanan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 723 - 735
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Identification of Ultra-Wideband Analog Multipliers
Abstract:
Analog multipliers are employed in many applications. In conventional RF front ends, for example, they are widely used for frequency conversion tasks. In noncoherent energy detectors or autocorrelation receivers, they multiply the (broadband) input signal by itself to achieve a down-conversion. Unfortunately, there exist no ideal hardware realizations of such devices, hence multipliers inevitably create undesired signal content at their output. To be able to deal with these effects or correct for them, we need to be able to model and identify realistic RF multipliers. This paper proposes and validates a multiple-input single-output Wiener–Hammerstein model for ultra-wideband (UWB) analog multipliers. The structure of the proposed model gives insight in the distortions created. It thus provides the possibility to study the realistic behavior of systems involving those multipliers, e.g., the influence of undesired nonlinear signal content onto noncoherent UWB receivers. A comparison of the model performance is shown with respect to measurements and circuit simulations.
Autors: Andreas Pedross-Engel;Hermann Schumacher;Klaus Witrisal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 283 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of Junctionless Double Gate Radiation Sensitive FET (RADFET) Dosimeter
Abstract:
A junctionless double gate radiation sensitive FET (RADFET) has been proposed to improve the radiation sensitivity and its application as CMOS-based dosimeter is discussed. Analytical model has been developed from 2D Poisson equation using variable separation technique and electrical performance of the proposed architecture has been compared with the conventional double gate (DG) RADFET. The comparison of device characteristics shows that the JL DG RADFET exhibits better electrical performance and sensitivity as compare to conventional DG RADFET. The model is verified using ATLAS 3D device simulation software.
Autors: Avashesh Dubey; Ajay;Rakhi Narang;Manoj Saxena;Mridula Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 49 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of Railgun System Driven by Multiple HTSPPT Modules
Abstract:
In the rail-type electromagnetic launching system, the equivalent load of pulsed-power supplies (PSs) varies with the launching process, while it has a certain influence on the discharge of pulsed PS. However, in the analysis and design of pulsed PS, researchers usually use the fixed resistance and inductance to simulate the load, which is impossible to accurately study the characteristics of the pulsed PS. The electromagnetic launching needs high-amplitude current pulse. Therefore, in this paper, a mathematical model of electromagnetic launching system driven by multiple superconducting inductive pulsed PS modules is established. In this model, the fixed resistance and inductance load are replaced by the dynamic load model of the railgun; the effects of dynamic load and fixed load on the discharge characteristics are analyzed; the parallel discharge characteristics of multiple high-temperature superconducting pulsed-power transformer (HTSPPT) modules are studied; and the characteristics of the simple rail-type electromagnetic launching driven by multiple HTSPPT modules are analyzed. The simulation results show that a high amplitude of current pulse can be produced using synchronous parallel discharge of multiple HTSPPT modules. The simulation results show that when the resistance and inductance of load are fixed at 2 and 0.5 , respectively, the current amplification factor is 15.666, and the maximum voltage of the auxiliary capacitor is 1079 V. In the dynamic load model, the current amplification factor is 17.174, and the error is 9.6%. The maximum voltage of the auxiliary capacitor is 983 V, and the error is 8.9%. Therefore, the discharge characteristics of pulsed PS can be more accurately studied using dynamic model- .
Autors: Zhenmei Li;Haitao Li;Xiaotong Zhang;Cunshan Zhang;Shucun Liu;Tong Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 167 - 174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design
Abstract:
Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.
Autors: Danielle Albers Szafir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 392 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Magnetized Graphene in the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method Using an Anisotropic Surface Boundary Condition
Abstract:
A cost-effective approach to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling of magnetized graphene sheets as a dispersive anisotropic conductive surface is proposed. We first introduce a novel method for implementation of anisotropic conductive surface boundary condition in the FDTD method. Then, by applying the surface conductivity matrix of magnetized graphene, we present modeling magnetized graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet in the FDTD method. The applicability, accuracy, and stability of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the results with existing analytic solution.
Autors: Mina Feizi;Vahid Nayyeri;Omar M. Ramahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 233 - 241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Distributed Queueing-Based Random Access for Machine Type Communications in Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Machine type communications (MTC) devices stay in idle mode to save energy and should perform random access (RA) procedure to obtain radio resources for data transmission. The RA procedure introduces access delay and extra power consumption for the MTC devices. Thus, RA needs to be optimized. In this letter, we develop low complexity analytical models to rapidly estimate maximum access delay and average number of preamble transmissions for distributed queueing-based random access (DQRA) protocol, which improves the performance of standard RA for MTC in LTE. The proposed model can be used to analyze the performance of group paging using DQRA. The performance analysis shows that the proposed analytical models accurately match the simulation results.
Autors: Ray-Guang Cheng;Zdenek Becvar;Ping-Hsun Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 129 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Energy Consumption of the HEVC Decoding Process
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a bit stream feature-based energy model that accurately estimates the energy required to decode a given High Efficiency Video Coding-coded bit stream. Therefore, we take a model from literature and extend it by explicitly modeling the in-loop filters, which was not done before. Furthermore, to prove its superior estimation performance, it is compared with seven different energy models from the literature. By using a unified evaluation framework, we show how accurately the required decoding energy for different decoding systems can be approximated. We give thorough explanations on the model parameters and explain how the model variables are derived. To show the modeling capabilities in general, we test the estimation performance for different decoding software and hardware solutions, where we find that the proposed model outperforms the models from the literature by reaching framewise mean estimation errors of less than 7% for software and less than 15% for hardware-based systems.
Autors: Christian Herglotz;Dominic Springer;Marc Reichenbach;Benno Stabernack;André Kaup;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 217 - 229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Nonlinear Cortical Response in EEG Evoked by Wrist Joint Manipulation
Abstract:
Joint manipulation elicits a response from the sensors in the periphery which, via the spinal cord, arrives in the cortex. The average evoked cortical response recorded using electroencephalography was shown to be highly nonlinear; a linear model can only explain 10% of the variance of the evoked response, and over 80% of the response is generated by nonlinear behavior. The goal of this paper is to obtain a nonparametric nonlinear dynamic model, which can consistently explain the recorded cortical response requiring little a priori assumptions about model structure. Wrist joint manipulation was applied in ten healthy participants during which their cortical activity was recorded and modeled using a truncated Volterra series. The obtained models could explain 46% of the variance of the evoked cortical response, thereby demonstrating the relevance of nonlinear modeling. The high similarity of the obtained models across participants indicates that the models reveal common characteristics of the underlying system. The models show predominantly high-pass behavior, which suggests that velocity-related information originating from the muscle spindles governs the cortical response. In conclusion, the nonlinear modeling approach using a truncated Volterra series with regularization, provides a quantitative way of investigating the sensorimotor system, offering insight into the underlying physiology.
Autors: Martijn P. Vlaar;Georgios Birpoutsoukis;John Lataire;Maarten Schoukens;Alfred C. Schouten;Johan Schoukens;Frans C. T. van der Helm;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 205 - 215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling, Simulation, and Testing of Switching Surge Transients in Rapid Transit Vehicles DC Power Systems
Abstract:
During the operation of dc rapid transit systems, the rail passenger vehicles are subjected to surge transient events that can damage the on-board equipment and cause service interruption. During the testing phase, vehicle manufacturers must demonstrate the performance of the vehicles under the specified transients. However, system testing is generally not available during design. Engineering analysis must be performed to ensure that the design will meet the transient requirements, and that the overvoltage and overcurrent protective devices are coordinated on a system level. In response to these design challenges, detailed time-domain simulation models of a switching surge transient generator and the vehicle equipment have been developed and validated experimentally. These models are used to evaluate vehicle system parameters sensitivity, as well as to provide design guidelines for increased vehicle power system safety, reliability, and availability.
Autors: Maxime Berger;Jean-Pierre Magalhaes Grave;Carl Lavertu;Ilhan Kocar;Jean Mahseredjian;Daniele Ferrara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 822 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular Architectures Make You Agile in the Long Run
Abstract:
Researchers have developed ways to think about, visualize, and measure software modularity and its erosion objectively and quantifiably. Using these techniques, you’ll be able to determine whether your software is modular and identify complexity hotspots in your code that warrant further investigation.
Autors: Dan Sturtevant;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 104 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolithic Airflow Detection Chip With Automatic DC Offset Calibration
Abstract:
A monolithic airflow detection chip is proposed for respiration rate monitoring, and it integrates MEMS sensors with their CMOS signal processing circuits into a single chip. In fact, one major issue of integrating resistive MEMS sensors with CMOS circuits is how to deal with the dc offset caused by the inherent resistance mismatches in the sensors. In this paper, an airflow detection chip with automatic dc offset calibration is proposed. Moreover, there are two MEMS cantilever-based sensors, metal-covered and metal-free, in the proposed chip. The metal-covered sensor was designed for validating the MEMS simulation results of CoventorWare, while the metal-free sensor has a higher sensitivity and better performance. According to the measured results, the pressure sensitivity of the metal-covered sensor is /mN, which is in the same order with the CoventorWare simulation result, and the sensitivity of the metal-free sensor is /mN. As to the fully built-in CMOS signal processing circuits, the system bandwidth is 0.5–4 Hz, and the input dc offset can be attenuated by a factor of 10 dB. The proposed chip was designed using a 0.35- CMOS/MEMS 2P4M mixed-signal polycide process, and the chip area is mm2.
Autors: Ming-Ke Tsai;Tse-An Chen;Heng-Yu Chiu;Tse-Wei Wu;Chia-Ling Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 107 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MOSS-5: A Fast Method of Approximating Counts of 5-Node Graphlets in Large Graphs
Abstract:
Counting 3-, 4-, and 5-node graphlets in graphs is important for graph mining applications such as discovering abnormal/evolution patterns in social and biology networks. In addition, it is recently widely used for computing similarities between graphs and graph classification applications such as protein function prediction and malware detection. However, it is challenging to compute these graphlet counts for a large graph or a large set of graphs due to the combinatorial nature of the problem. Despite recent efforts in counting 3-node and 4-node graphlets, little attention has been paid to characterizing 5-node graphlets. In this paper, we develop a computationally efficient sampling method to estimate 5-node graphlet counts. We not only provide a fast sampling method and unbiased estimators of graphlet counts, but also derive simple yet exact formulas for the variances of the estimators which are of great value in practice—the variances can be used to bound the estimates’ errors and determine the smallest necessary sampling budget for a desired accuracy. We conduct experiments on a variety of real-world datasets, and the results show that our method is several orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art methods with the same accuracy.
Autors: Pinghui Wang;Junzhou Zhao;Xiangliang Zhang;Zhenguo Li;Jiefeng Cheng;John C.S. Lui;Don Towsley;Jing Tao;Xiaohong Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 73 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion Tracking of the Carotid Artery Wall From Ultrasound Image Sequences: a Nonlinear State-Space Approach
Abstract:
The motion of the common carotid artery (CCA) wall has been established to be useful in early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease. However, tracking the CCA wall motion from ultrasound images remains a challenging task. In this paper, a nonlinear state-space approach has been developed to track CCA wall motion from ultrasound sequences. In this approach, a nonlinear state-space equation with a time-variant control signal was constructed from a mathematical model of the dynamics of the CCA wall. Then, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) was adopted to solve the nonlinear state transfer function in order to evolve the state of the target tissue, which involves estimation of the motion trajectory of the CCA wall from noisy ultrasound images. The performance of this approach has been validated on 30 simulated ultrasound sequences and a real ultrasound dataset of 103 subjects by comparing the motion tracking results obtained in this study to those of three state-of-the-art methods and of the manual tracing method performed by two experienced ultrasound physicians. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach is highly correlated with (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9948 for the longitudinal motion and ≥ 0.9966 for the radial motion) and well agrees (the 95% confidence interval width is 0.8871 mm for the longitudinal motion and 0.4159 mm for the radial motion) with the manual tracing method on real data and also exhibits high accuracy on simulated data (0.1161 ~ 0.1260 mm). These results appear to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for motion tracking of the CCA wall.
Autors: Zhifan Gao;Yanjie Li;Yuanyuan Sun;Jiayuan Yang;Huahua Xiong;Heye Zhang;Xin Liu;Wanqing Wu;Dong Liang;Shuo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 273 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motor Task Detection From Human STN Using Interhemispheric Connectivity
Abstract:
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides significant therapeutic benefit for movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Current DBS devices lack real-time feedback (thus are open loop) and stimulation parameters are adjusted during scheduled visits with a clinician. A closed-loop DBS system may reduce power consumption and side effects by adjusting stimulation parameters based on patient’s behavior. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potential (LFP) is a great candidate signal for the neural feedback, because it can be recorded from the stimulation lead and does not require additional sensors. In this paper, we introduce a behavior detection method capable of asynchronously detecting the finger movements of PD patients. Our study indicates that there is a motor-modulated inter-hemispheric connectivity between LFP signals recorded bilaterally from the STN. We utilize a non-linear regression method to measure this inter-hemispheric connectivity for detecting finger movement. Our experimental results, using the recordings from 11 patients with PD, demonstrate that this approach is applicable for behavior detection in the majority of subjects (average area under curve of 70±12%).
Autors: Soroush Niketeghad;Adam O. Hebb;Joshua Nedrud;Sara J. Hanrahan;Mohammad H. Mahoor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 216 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving Target Refocusing Algorithm in 2-D Wavenumber Domain After BP Integral
Abstract:
Focusing moving targets with frequency-domain algorithms may suffer from azimuth spectrum not entirely contained within a pulse-repetition frequency band, which may lead to degraded detection performance due to distributing the energy to the artifacts. In order to avoid this problem, a refocusing algorithm after back-projection integral is proposed. The main idea is first to uniformly and coarsely focus moving targets for detection, and then extract the detected targets for refocusing. By deriving the exact analytic expression of the wavenumber spectrum, motion parameter estimation and motion compensation are directly carried out on the 2-D wavenumber domain of the small-sized extracted data, which involves fast Fourier transform and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform operations only with no interpolation, thus reduces the computational complexity. Then, the final refocused image of the moving target is achieved. Refocusing results of both airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Qi Dong;Meng-Dao Xing;Xiang-Gen Xia;Sheng Zhang;Guang-Cai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 127 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving Target Tracking in SAR Data Using Combined Exo- and Endo-Clutter Processing
Abstract:
Detecting and tracking moving targets in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a challenging task, demanding state-of-the-art processing methods and advanced SAR systems. Current approaches concentrate on the problem of either endo-clutter moving target tracking or exo-clutter moving target tracking, neglecting the advantages of a joint tracking framework. We present an approach relying on a combined exo- and endo-clutter processing scheme using SAR data with a high pulse repetition frequency. The main processing chain is subdivided into four major steps: 1) focusing of temporal and spatial overlapping SAR images; 2) extracting image statistics for each of these subaperture images in the endo- and exo-clutter domains; 3) subsequent tracking of both endo- and exo-clutter observations using multitarget unscented Kalman filtering; and 4) calculating real-world speeds and positions from the SAR image space coordinates using a road network. The results of this approach are validated and compared with ground-based measurements, and it is found that 100% of the vehicles were detected correctly with an accuracy in speed of 0.02 ± 0.31 m/s and an average tracking time of ~28 s.
Autors: Daniel Henke;Elias Mendez Dominguez;David Small;Michael E. Schaepman;Erich Meier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 251 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MPiLoc: Self-Calibrating Multi-Floor Indoor Localization Exploiting Participatory Sensing
Abstract:
While location is one of the most important context information in mobile and pervasive computing, large-scale deployment of indoor localization system remains elusive. In this work, we propose MPiLoc, a multi-floor indoor localization system that utilizes data contributed by smartphone users through participatory sensing for automatic floor plan and radio map construction. Our system does not require manual calibration, prior knowledge, or infrastructure support. The key novelty of MPiLoc is that it clusters and merges walking trajectories annotated with sensor and signal strengths to derive a map of walking paths annotated with radio signal strengths in multi-floor indoor environments. We evaluate MPiLoc over five different indoor areas. Evaluation shows that our system can derive indoor maps for various indoor environments in multi-floor settings and achieve an average localization error of 1.82 m.
Autors: Chengwen Luo;Hande Hong;Mun Choon Chan;Jianqiang Li;Xinglin Zhang;Zhong Ming;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 141 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference 2017 [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2017 MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference.
Autors: Heng-Ming Hsu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 127 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Cell Cooperative Scheduling for Network Utility Maximization With User Equipment Side Interference Cancellation
Abstract:
Downlink inter-cell interference is a major limiting factor in current cellular systems. Several trends exacerbate the interference problem: cells become denser, more heterogeneous, and are more randomly deployed. To tackle this problem, there are many pure network-side solutions proposed, e.g., eICIC and feICIC in 3GPP LTE. However, these solutions are less spectrally efficient because the interferer usually needs to mute or reduce power to keep its interference power to victims below a tolerable level. In this paper, we consider an alternative solution in which the user equipment may perform interference cancellation (IC). In theory, this is a more spectrally efficient scheme as compared with the pure network-side solutions. In practice, however, to fully exploit the benefit of IC, the network should adopt some IC-aware scheduling rules. We propose a multi-cell joint scheduling, joint rate selection and power allocation problem in an IC-enabled network, trying to maximize the network utility. To make our solutions practical and readily deployable, we consider different settings. We explore both theoretically optimal IC scheme and the more practical symbol-level IC. On the other hand, we propose both dynamic and semi-static solutions, and compare them. Our simulation results show that while the average throughput increases by only around 10%, cell edge users can gain more than 50%.
Autors: Chen-Yu Wei;Wanjiun Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 619 - 635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Dimensional Sparse Models
Abstract:
Traditional synthesis/analysis sparse representation models signals in a one dimensional (1D) way, in which a multidimensional (MD) signal is converted into a 1D vector. 1D modeling cannot sufficiently handle MD signals of high dimensionality in limited computational resources and memory usage, as breaking the data structure and inherently ignores the diversity of MD signals (tensors). We utilize the multilinearity of tensors to establish the redundant basis of the space of multi linear maps with the sparsity constraint, and further propose MD synthesis/analysis sparse models to effectively and efficiently represent MD signals in their original form. The dimensional features of MD signals are captured by a series of dictionaries simultaneously and collaboratively. The corresponding dictionary learning algorithms and unified MD signal restoration formulations are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed models and dictionary learning algorithms is demonstrated through experiments on MD signals denoising, image super-resolution and texture classification. Experiments show that the proposed MD models outperform state-of-the-art 1D models in terms of signal representation quality, computational overhead, and memory storage. Moreover, our proposed MD sparse models generalize the 1D sparse models and are flexible and adaptive to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous properties of MD signals.
Autors: Na Qi;Yunhui Shi;Xiaoyan Sun;Jingdong Wang;Baocai Yin;Junbin Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 163 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Element VLC Networks: LED Assignment, Power Control, and Optimum Combining
Abstract:
Visible light communications (VLCs) are a promising technology to address the spectrum crunch problem in radio frequency networks. A major advantage of VLC networks is that they can use the existing lighting infrastructure in indoor environments, which may have large number of LEDs for illumination. While LEDs used for lighting typically have limited bandwidth, presence of many LEDs can be exploited for indoor VLC networks, to serve each user by multiple LEDs for improving link quality and throughput. In this paper, LEDs are grouped and assigned to the users based on received signal strength from each LED, for which different solutions are proposed to achieve maximum throughput, proportional fairness, and quality of service. Additionally, power optimization of LEDs for a given assignment is investigated, and the Jacobian and Hessian matrices of the corresponding optimization problem are derived. Moreover, for multi-element receivers with LED grouping at the transmitter, an improved optimal combining method is proposed. This method suppresses interference caused by simultaneous data transfer of LEDs and improves the overall signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio by 2–5 dB. Lastly, an efficient calculation of channel response is presented to simulate multipath VLC channel with low computational complexity.
Autors: Yusuf Said Eroğlu;İsmail Güvenç;Alphan Şahin;Yavuz Yapıcı;Nezih Pala;Murat Yüksel;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 121 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Imager Compatible, MR Safe, Remote Center of Motion Needle-Guide Robot
Abstract:
We report the development of a new robotic system for direct image-guided interventions (DIGI; images acquired at the time of the intervention). The manipulator uses our previously reported pneumatic step motors and is entirely made of electrically nonconductive, nonmetallic, and nonmagnetic materials. It orients a needle-guide with two degrees of freedom (DoF) about a fulcrum point located below the guide using an innovative remote center of motion parallelogram type mechanism. The depth of manual needle insertion is preset with a third DoF, located remotely of the manipulator. Special consideration was given to the kinematic accuracy and the structural stiffness. The manipulator includes registration markers for image-to-robot registration. Based on the images, it may guide needles, drills, or other slender instruments to a target (OD < 10 mm). Comprehensive preclinical tests were performed. The manipulator is MR safe (ASTM F2503-13). Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing (IEC 60601-1-2) of the system shows that it does not conduct or radiate EM emissions. The change in the signal to noise ratio of the MRI due to the presence and motion of the robot in the scanner is below 1%. The structural stiffness at the needle-guide is 33 N/mm. The angular accuracy and precision of the manipulator itself are 0.177° and 0.077°. MRI-guided targeting accuracy and precision in vitro were 1.71 mm and 0.51 mm, at an average target depth of ∼38 mm, with no adjustments. The system may be suitable for DIGI where [mm] accuracy lateral to the needle (2D) or [mm] in 3D is acceptable. The system is also multi-imager compatible and co- ld be used with other imaging modalities.
Autors: Dan Stoianovici;Changhan Jun;Sunghwan Lim;Pan Li;Doru Petrisor;Stanley Fricke;Karun Sharma;Kevin Cleary;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 165 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning for Multi-Class Classification of Whole Slide Breast Histopathology Images
Abstract:
Digital pathology has entered a new era with the availability of whole slide scanners that create the high-resolution images of full biopsy slides. Consequently, the uncertainty regarding the correspondence between the image areas and the diagnostic labels assigned by pathologists at the slide level, and the need for identifying regions that belong to multiple classes with different clinical significances have emerged as two new challenges. However, generalizability of the state-of-the-art algorithms, whose accuracies were reported on carefully selected regions of interest (ROIs) for the binary benign versus cancer classification, to these multi-class learning and localization problems is currently unknown. This paper presents our potential solutions to these challenges by exploiting the viewing records of pathologists and their slide-level annotations in weakly supervised learning scenarios. First, we extract candidate ROIs from the logs of pathologists’ image screenings based on different behaviors, such as zooming, panning, and fixation. Then, we model each slide with a bag of instances represented by the candidate ROIs and a set of class labels extracted from the pathology forms. Finally, we use four different multi-instance multi-label learning algorithms for both slide-level and ROI-level predictions of diagnostic categories in whole slide breast histopathology images. Slide-level evaluation using 5-class and 14-class settings showed average precision values up to 81% and 69%, respectively, under different weakly labeled learning scenarios. ROI-level predictions showed that the classifier could successfully perform multi-class localization and classification within whole slide images that were selected to include the full range of challenging diagnostic categories.
Autors: Caner Mercan;Selim Aksoy;Ezgi Mercan;Linda G. Shapiro;Donald L. Weaver;Joann G. Elmore;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 316 - 325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Node Transfer Alignment Based on Mechanics Modeling for Airborne DPOS
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of multi-node transfer alignment estimation of airborne distributed position and orientation system (DPOS), and its aim is to achieve the motion parameters for all sub-nodes as high precision as possible by using the main system. The complicated aircraft deformation, especially the wing’s flexure, will seriously decrease the accuracy of transfer alignment. Usually, the deformation between the main node and each sub-node is idealized as an independent Markov process. In fact, these deformations are interrelated at a certain moment. To solve the mentioned problem, a multi-node transfer alignment method based on mechanics modeling is proposed in this paper. In this method, the elastic mechanics theory is used to build a unified kinematic equation of the wing to describe the flexible deformations of all sub-nodes, and then the transfer alignment is performed to obtain the motion parameters of each sub-node with inertial measurement units (IMU). Finally, the motion parameters of other sub-nodes without IMUs are obtained by the least squares fitting. The mathematical simulation and semi-physical simulation based on flight experiment show that the proposed method is not only effective but also provides us some new insights into the multi-node measurement of DPOS.
Autors: Xiaolin Gong;Haojie Liu;Jiancheng Fang;Gang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 669 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Particle Swarm Optimizer
Abstract:
In recent decades, bearingless switched reluctance motors (BSRMs) have been proposed. However, few researchers focused on the optimal design of the BSRMs. In this paper, the multi-objective optimal design of BSRMs is investigated. At first, an analytical design model is derived from the mathematical model of the BSRMs. An initial design is calculated by the analytical design model. The electromagnetic performance is compared with calculation results from the finite-element method (FEM). Then, the objective functions, constraints, and decision variables are also determined. Corresponding sensitivity analysis of the decision variables is implemented. Besides, aiming at solving the optimization problem with disconnected, non-uniformly distributed Pareto front and multiple local optimums, a novel multi-objective genetic particle swarm optimizer (MOGPSO) is presented. The algorithm performance of the proposed MOGPSO is validated by solving the standard test functions. Then the proposed MOGPSO is applied for the optimal design of BSRMs. Optimization results solved by MOGPSO, conventional multi-objective particle swarm optimizer, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II are compared and analyzed. Comparison results reveal that the proposed MOGPSO can achieve more non-dominated solutions in Pareto front and is particularly suitable for optimization of BSRMs. The final optimal design is selected from the obtained Pareto front. The electromagnetic performance is compared with the initial design and verified by the FEM. Verification results show that the optimal design of BSRMs based on the analytical design model and the proposed MOGPSO is feasible and effective.
Autors: Jingwei Zhang;Honghua Wang;Ling Chen;Chao Tan;Yi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Stage Holomorphic Embedding Method for Calculating the Power-Voltage Curve
Abstract:
The recently proposed non-iterative load flow method, called the holomorphic embedding method, may encounter the precision issue, i.e., the nontrivial round-off errors caused by the limited digits used in computing the power-voltage (P-V) curve for a heavily loaded power system. This letter proposes a multi-stage scheme to solve such a precision issue and calculate an accurate P-V curve. The scheme is verified on the New England 39-bus power system and benchmarked with the result from the traditional continuation power flow method.
Autors: Bin Wang;Chengxi Liu;Kai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1127 - 1129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming With Nonanticipativity Constraints for Expansion of Combined Power and Natural Gas Systems
Abstract:
A novel multi-stage stochastic programming model is proposed for the expansion coplanning of gas and power networks considering the uncertainties in net load demand. Meanwhile, the nonanticipativity constraints are taken into account to guarantee the decisions should only depend on the information of realized uncertainties up to the present stage. Compared with the traditional two-stage stochastic programming model, the proposed multi-stage stochastic programming model yields sequential investment decisions with the uncertainties revealed gradually over time, such that the investment decisions are capable of keeping future options open and can shift from “never be changed” decisions to a flexible “wait and see” decisions. The test on three systems shows the effectiveness of the proposed multi-stage stochastic programming model.
Autors: Tao Ding;Yuan Hu;Zhaohong Bie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 317 - 328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-User Computation Offloading in Mobile Edge Computing: A Behavioral Perspective
Abstract:
By providing cloud computing capabilities at the network edge in proximity of mobile device users, mobile edge computing offers an effective solution to help mobile devices with computation- intensive and delay-sensitive tasks. In this article, we investigate the multi-user computation offloading problem in an uncertain wireless environment. Most of the existing works assume that mobile device users are rational and make offloading decisions to maximize their expected objective utilities. However, in practice, users tend to have subjective perceptions under uncertainty, such that their behavior deviates considerably from the conventional rationality assumption. Drawing on the framework of prospect theory (PT), we formulate users' decision making of whether to offload or not as a PT-based non-cooperative game. We propose a distributed computation offloading algorithm to achieve the Nash equilibrium of the game. Numerical results assess the impact of mobile device users' behavioral biases on offloading decision making.
Autors: Ling Tang;Shibo He;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 48 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiaccess In Vivo Biotelemetry Using Sonomicrometry and M-Scan Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
 Objective: In this paper, we investigate the use of commercial off-the-shelf diagnostic ultrasound readers to achieve multiaccess wireless in vivo telemetry with millimeter-sized sonomicrometry crystal transducers. Methods: The sonomicrometry crystals generate ultrasonic pulses that supersede the echoes generated at the tissue interfaces in response to M-scan interrogation pulses. The traces of these synthetic pulses are captured on an M-scan image and the transmitted data are decoded using image deconvolution and deblurring algorithms. Results: Using a chicken phantom and 1.3 MHz sonomicrometry crystals of diameter 1 mm, we first demonstrate that a standard ultrasound reader can achieve biotelemetry data rates up to 1 Mb/s for implantation depths greater than 10 cm. For this experiment the maximum power dissipation at the crystals was measured to be 20 and bit-error-rate of the telemetry link was shown to be . We also demonstrate the use of this method for multiaccess biotelemetry where several sonomicrometry crystals simultaneously transmit the data using different modulation and coding techniques. Using a live ovine model, we demonstrate a sonomicrometry crystal implanted in the sheep 's tricuspid valve can maintain a continuous, reliable telemetry link at data rates up tob 800 Kb/s in the presence of respiratory and cardiac motion artifacts. Conclusion: Compared to existing radio-frequency and ultrasound based biotelemetry devices, the reported data-rates are significantly higher considering the transducer's form-factor and its implantation depth. Significance: The proposed technique thus validates the feasibility of establishing r- liable communication link with multiple in vivo implants using M-scan-based ultrasound imaging.
Autors: Sri Harsha Kondapalli;Yarub Alazzawi;Marcin Malinowski;Tomasz Timek;Shantanu Chakrabartty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 149 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiagent-Based Flexible Edge Computing Architecture for IoT
Abstract:
This article presents a proposal for FLEC architecture, which solves problems resulting from the rigidity of the traditional IoT architecture and edge computing. FLEC architecture is a flexible and advanced IoT system model characterized by environment adaptation ability and user orientation ability. We utilize COSAP, a system configuration platform based on a multiagent framework, as an implementation procedure for FLEC architecture. Furthermore, this article presents its application case study of a healthcare support system for a sports event with many participants. Finally, we demonstrate the contribution of this proposed architecture to problem solution in edge computing.
Autors: Takuo Suganuma;Takuma Oide;Shinji Kitagami;Kenji Sugawara;Norio Shiratori;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 16 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicore Mixed-Criticality Systems: Partitioned Scheduling and Utilization Bound
Abstract:
In mixed-criticality (MC) systems, multiple activities with various certification requirements (thus with different criticality levels) can co-exist on shared hardware platforms, where multicore processors have emerged as the de facto computing engines. In this paper, by using the partitioned earliest-deadline-first with virtual deadlines (EDF-VDs) scheduler for a set of periodic MC tasks running on multicore systems, we derive a criticality-aware utilization bound for efficient feasibility tests and then identify its characteristics. Our analysis shows that the bound increases with increasing number of cores and decreasing system criticality level. We show that, since the utilizations of MC tasks at different criticality levels can vary considerably, the utilization contribution of a task on different cores may have large variations and thus can significantly affect the system schedulability under the EDF-VD scheduler. Based on these observations, we propose a novel and efficient criticality-aware task partitioning algorithm (CA-TPA) to compensate for the inherent pessimism of the utilization bound. In order to improve the system schedulability, the task priorities are determined according to their utilization contributions to the system in CA-TPA. Moreover, by analyzing the utilization variations of tasks at different levels, we develop several heuristics to minimize the utilization increment and balance the workload on cores. The simulation results show that the CA-TPA scheme is very effective in achieving higher schedulability ratio and yielding balanced workloads. The actual implementation in Linux operating system further demonstrates the applicability of CA-TPA with lower run-time overhead, compared to the existing partitioning schemes.
Autors: Jian-Jun Han;Xin Tao;Dakai Zhu;Hakan Aydin;Zili Shao;Laurence T. Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 21 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidomain Phase-Field Modeling of Negative Capacitance Switching Transients
Abstract:
Continuum phase-field simulations show how a multidomain ferroelectric capacitor in series with a resistor can exhibit a transient response in which the ferroelectric behaves as a negative capacitor. We show that accelerating domain growth leads to negative capacitance (NC), and this happens even when there is no initial switching of the domains. The observed behavior is in close agreement with experimental results of NC transients seen recently in a number of ferroelectric material systems.
Autors: Samuel Smith;Korok Chatterjee;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 295 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifeature, Sparse-Based Approach for Defects Detection and Classification in Semiconductor Units
Abstract:
Automated inspection systems play an important role in manufacturing to guarantee higher quality and reduce production costs. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, assembly and testing processes are getting more complex, resulting in a greater tendency of defects to impact the production process. These defects can cause field failures and can result in customer dissatisfactions and returns. Currently available defect detection and classification systems are customized and hard-wired to the detection of particular classes of defects and cannot deal with new unknown classes of defects. This issue is aggravated by the very small sample size of available anomalies for learning, by the data imbalance problem, since the number of defective samples is significantly much smaller than the number of normal samples, and by the presence of noise. This paper presents a novel multifeature, sparse-based defect detection and classification approach that uses the stacking concept to enhance the classification accuracy. The stacking-based classifier is augmented with a novel adaptive over/downsampling technique to deal with the data imbalance problem. A new pruning technique is proposed to eliminate bad base learners. Shortage of defective units, similarities within different classes of defects, wide variation within the same defect class, and data imbalance are the basic challenges to deal with. Experimental results on real-world data from Intel show that the proposed approach results in a high classification accuracy as compared with the existing methods.

Note to Practitioners—The basic motivation of this paper is to design an automated cost-effective, adaptive, and intelligent defect detection and classification system that is easy to train using a small-size sample set of defects and that is robust to noise. The system is scalable in terms of the numbers and types of defects and features, which leads to a shorter development cycle- The presented system is immediately applicable to different types of defects. Inputs of the system are grayscale images. These images are processed to perform defects detection, features extraction, and classification.

Autors: Bashar M. Haddad;Sen Yang;Lina J. Karam;Jieping Ye;Nital S. Patel;Martin W. Braun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 145 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multihypothesis-Based Compressive Sensing Algorithm for Nonscanning Three-Dimensional Laser Imaging
Abstract:
The resolution of nonscanning three-dimensional (3-D) imaging systems is limited by the number and accuracy of the array sensors. Moreover, for space-continuous targets in practical situations, the echo pulses in time-of-flight systems overlap and traditional peak detection is no longer suitable for super-resolution applications. Hence, compressive sensing (CS) has been introduced to achieve super-resolution. However, most of the conventional CS algorithms cannot be used directly for 3-D image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution algorithm for nonscanning 3-D laser imaging based on CS reconstruction. To acquire the range information of space-continuous targets, an all-one projection is implemented in advance to estimate the spatial distribution of the targets; a range observation matrix composed of time-interval basis vectors is then constructed to obtain the peak values of each frame from overlapping echo pulses. Because of the spatial continuity of the targets, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to solve the ill-posed inverse problem. Furthermore, to enhance the reconstruction quality of the adjacent frames, multihypothesis prediction is used with displacement and diffusion models to estimate the motion of the contour line. Simulation results based on real data from the ASTER global digital elevation model demonstrate the effectiveness and high accuracy of the proposed algorithm for complex landforms.
Autors: Han Gao;Yanmei Zhang;Haichao Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 311 - 321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer Millimeter-Wave MCMs [From the Guest Editors' Desk]
Abstract:
After a brief review of the state of the art, this focus issue on multilayer millimeter-wave (mmW) multichip modules (MCMs) presents four cover features that showcase the evolution in some key areas of multilayer mmW MCM integration and packaging technologies: advanced interconnects, integration techniques, components, and systems that use additive as well as substructure manufacturing technologies aimed toward making next-generation mmW applications feasible. The first two features provide an overview of state-of-the-art multilayer ceramic-based multichip module and packaging techniques, while the third and fourth features are more specific: one describing SiP eWLB packaging techniques and the other covering recent developments in inkjet and 3-D printed components and subsystems using additive manufacturing technologies.
Autors: Kamal K. Samanta;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 20 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Deep Embedding via Hierarchical Grounded Compositional Semantics
Abstract:
For a number of important problems, isolated semantic representations of individual syntactic words or visual objects do not suffice, but instead a compositional semantic representation is required; for example, a literal phrase or a set of spatially concurrent objects. In this paper, we aim to harness the existing image–sentence databases to exploit the compositional nature of image–sentence data for multimodal deep embedding. In particular, we propose an approach called hierarchical-alike (bottom–up two layers) multimodal grounded compositional semantics (hiMoCS) learning. The proposed hiMoCS systemically captures the compositional semantic connotation of multimodal data in the setting of hierarchical-alike deep learning by modeling the inherent correlations between two modalities of collaboratively grounded semantics, such as the textual entity (with its describing attribute) and visual object, the phrase (e.g., subject-verb–object triplet), and spatially concurrent objects. We argue that hiMoCS is more appropriate to reflect the multimodal compositional semantics of the image and its narrative textual sentence, which are strongly coupled. We evaluate hiMoCS on the several benchmark data sets and show that the utilization of the hiMoCS (textual entities and visual objects, textual phrase, and spatially concurrent objects) achieves a much better performance than only using the flat grounded compositional semantics.
Autors: Yueting Zhuang;Jun Song;Fei Wu;Xi Li;Zhongfei Zhang;Yong Rui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 76 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Fusion With Reference: Searching for Joint Neuromarkers of Working Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia
Abstract:
By exploiting cross-information among multiple imaging data, multimodal fusion has often been used to better understand brain diseases. However, most current fusion approaches are blind, without adopting any prior information. There is increasing interest to uncover the neurocognitive mapping of specific clinical measurements on enriched brain imaging data; hence, a supervised, goal-directed model that employs prior information as a reference to guide multimodal data fusion is much needed and becomes a natural option. Here, we proposed a fusion with reference model called “multi-site canonical correlation analysis with reference + joint-independent component analysis” (MCCAR+jICA), which can precisely identify co-varying multimodal imaging patterns closely related to the reference, such as cognitive scores. In a three-way fusion simulation, the proposed method was compared with its alternatives on multiple facets; MCCAR+jICA outperforms others with higher estimation precision and high accuracy on identifying a target component with the right correspondence. In human imaging data, working memory performance was utilized as a reference to investigate the co-varying working memory-associated brain patterns among three modalities and how they are impaired in schizophrenia. Two independent cohorts (294 and 83 subjects respectively) were used. Similar brain maps were identified between the two cohorts along with substantial overlaps in the central executive network in fMRI, salience network in sMRI, and major white matter tracts in dMRI. These regions have been linked with working memory deficits in schizophrenia in multiple reports and MCCAR+jICA further verified them in a repeatable, joint manner, demonstrating the ability of the proposed method to identify potential neuromarkers for mental disorders.
Autors: Shile Qi;Vince D. Calhoun;Theo G. M. van Erp;Juan Bustillo;Eswar Damaraju;Jessica A. Turner;Yuhui Du;Jian Yang;Jiayu Chen;Qingbao Yu;Daniel H. Mathalon;Judith M. Ford;James Voyvodic;Bryon A. Mueller;Aysenil Belger;Sarah McEwen;Steven G. Potkin;Adrian
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 93 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Scheduling of Microgrids to Harvest Higher Photovoltaic Energy
Abstract:
Photovoltaics (PVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could instigate voltage violation issues, if not controlled properly. Besides, these components highly contribute to economic efficiency of microgrids (MGs). Being motivated to enhance technical and economic issues, this study develops an energy management system that is able to coordinate voltage control devices, say under-load tap changers (ULTC), PVs, PEV aggregators, and dispatchable distributed generations (DDGs). Active and reactive power provisions of PEVs and DDGs along with voltage control of ULTC lessen the plausible violations. So, higher renewable energy is contributed by PVs and extra monetary saving is reflected. In this manner, augmented Epsilon-constraint method followed with fuzzy decision making is applied to operation cost and voltage deviation minimizations. The proposed approach is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear multiobjective problem and tested on a modified IEEE 33-bus medium-voltage MG. Results are discussed in depth.
Autors: Amir Hamidi;Daryoush Nazarpour;Sajjad Golshannavaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 47 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Subpixel Land-Cover Mapping
Abstract:
The hyperspectral subpixel mapping (SPM) technique can generate a land-cover map at the subpixel scale by modeling the relationship between the abundance map and the spatial distribution image of the subpixels. However, this is an inverse ill-posed problem. The most widely used way to resolve the problem is to introduce additional information as a regularization term and acquire the unique optimal solution. However, the regularization parameter either needs to be determined manually or it cannot be determined in a fully adaptive manner. Thus, in this paper, the multiobjective subpixel land-cover mapping (MOSM) framework for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is proposed, in which the two function terms [the fidelity term and the prior term (i.e., the regularization term)] can be optimized simultaneously, and there is no need to determine the regularization parameter explicitly. In order to achieve this goal, two strategies are designed in MOSM: 1) a high-resolution distribution image-based individual encoding strategy is designed in order to calculate the prior term accurately and 2) a subfitness-based individual comparison strategy is designed in order to generate subpixel land-cover mapping solutions with a high quality to update the population. Four data sets (one simulated, two synthetic, and one real hyperspectral image) were used to test the proposed method. The experimental results show that MOSM can perform better than the other subpixel land-cover mapping methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of MOSM in balancing the fidelity term and prior term in the SPM model.
Autors: Ailong Ma;Yanfei Zhong;Da He;Liangpei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 422 - 435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Radar Subbands Fusion Algorithm Based on Support Vector Regression in Complex Noise Environment
Abstract:
Real noise environment may not be Gaussian due to the existence of man-made interferences, natural bursts, and so on. In this paper, a new multiple radar subbands fusion algorithm in complex noise environment is proposed. The considered complex noise includes impulsive noise and the mixture of impulsive and Gaussian noises. The proposed subband fusion algorithm consists of the following steps. First, the incoherent factors are estimated and the multiple subbands are compensated to be mutually coherent. Then, coherent subbands are fit by the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) model, where model parameters are estimated in the frame of sparse reconstruction. Different probability distribution functions are used to describe different noise environments, and the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate of scattering model parameters is achieved. It is shown that the MAP estimate can be obtained by iteratively solving a support vector regression problem. Finally, the fused full band is obtained by extrapolating the measured subband data based on the estimated GTD model. Validity and performance of the proposed algorithm are investigated by analytical data, simulated data, and static-range data.
Autors: Ying Zhang;Tingjing Wang;Huapeng Zhao;Yanxin Zhang;Hua Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 381 - 392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Scale Approach to Dynamics of an LC Circuit With a Charge-Controlled Memristor
Abstract:
This brief presents an analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a memristive inductive–capacitive circuit, driven by a sinusoidal voltage source. The analysis is carried out using multiple-scale technique. The memristance is modeled by a power law series of the electrical charge , considering both passive and active . The steady-state solution behavior, close to the resonant circuit condition, is investigated. Numerical simulations are reported for comparison with analytical results.
Autors: Kristopher J. Chandía;Mauro Bologna;Bernardo Tellini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 120 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Solutions of Transmission Line Switching in Power Systems
Abstract:
Line switching provides the flexibility for an operator to reduce the operation cost by switching some lines. However, the issue of multiple solutions in the existing models has never been explored and addressed. This will make the traditional models fail to determine the best line switching strategy in the context of multiple solutions. In this letter, we demonstrate that the multiple solution issue in line switching is very significant and propose a multi-objective optimization approach to address the multiple solutions of line switching. The simulation results on the IEEE 118-bus and IEEE 300-bus systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Xuan Liu;Yunfeng Wen;Zuyi Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1118 - 1120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Input Configuration of Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Power Flow Control in Combinational Battery Storage
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multiple-input configuration of isolated bidirectional dual active bridge dc–dc converter (MIBDC) for power flow control in combinational battery storage. It can be operated in an independent source or combinational source mode of operation to control the power transfer, with the capability of bidirectional power flow and smoother transition. The proposed configuration has the benefits of reduction in circulation power and peak current stress in an independent mode of operation, which enhances the efficiency of dual active bridge converter. It also offers a wide range of power transmission as compared to the conventional IBDC. The proposed configuration can also be used with unequal voltage level sources by connecting them in series on multi-input side. The operation and investigation of the proposed configuration are presented in detail. In addition, the strategy of power flow control with multiple-input sources is discussed. The operation of the proposed MIBDC has been verified through simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC and experimentally demonstrated using ARM LPC 2148 processor.
Autors: V. Karthikeyan;Rajesh Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 2 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiplier-Less Stream Processor for 2D Filtering in Visual Search Applications
Abstract:
A new 2D convolution-based filter is presented, which is specifically designed to improve visual search applications. It exploits a new radix-3 partitioning method of integer numbers, derived from the weight partition theory, which allows substituting multipliers with simplified floating point (FP) adders, working on 32-b FP filter coefficients. The memory organization allows elaborating the incoming data in raster scan order, as those directly provided by an acquisition source, without frame buffers and additional aligning circuitry. Compared with the existent literature, built around conventional arithmetic circuitry, the proposed design achieves state-of-the-art performances in the reduction of the mapped physical resources and elaboration velocity, achieving a critical path delay of about 4.5 ns both with a Xilinx Virtex-7 field-programmable gate array and CMOS 90-nm std_cells.
Autors: Gian Domenico Licciardo;Carmine Cappetta;Luigi Di Benedetto;Alfredo Rubino;Rosalba Liguori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 267 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiresolution Search of the Rigid Motion Space for Intensity-Based Registration
Abstract:
We study the relation between the correlation-based target functions of low-resolution and high-resolution intensity-based registration for the class of rigid transformations. Our results show that low-resolution target values can tightly bound the high-resolution target function in natural images. This can help with analyzing and better understanding the process of multiresolution image registration. It also gives a guideline for designing multiresolution algorithms in which the search space in higher resolution registration is restricted given the fitness values for lower resolution image pairs. To demonstrate this, we incorporate our multiresolution technique into a Lipschitz global optimization framework. We show that using the multiresolution scheme can result in large gains in the efficiency of such algorithms. The method is evaluated by applying to the problems of 2D registration, 3D rotation search, and the detection of reflective symmetry in 2D and 3D images.
Autors: Behrooz Nasihatkon;Fredrik Kahl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 179 - 191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Visualization and Scale-Adaptive Modification of DNA Nanostructures
Abstract:
We present an approach to represent DNA nanostructures in varying forms of semantic abstraction, describe ways to smoothly transition between them, and thus create a continuous multiscale visualization and interaction space for applications in DNA nanotechnology. This new way of observing, interacting with, and creating DNA nanostructures enables domain experts to approach their work in any of the semantic abstraction levels, supporting both low-level manipulations and high-level visualization and modifications. Our approach allows them to deal with the increasingly complex DNA objects that they are designing, to improve their features, and to add novel functions in a way that no existing single-scale approach offers today. For this purpose we collaborated with DNA nanotechnology experts to design a set of ten semantic scales. These scales take the DNA's chemical and structural behavior into account and depict it from atoms to the targeted architecture with increasing levels of abstraction. To create coherence between the discrete scales, we seamlessly transition between them in a well-defined manner. We use special encodings to allow experts to estimate the nanoscale object's stability. We also add scale-adaptive interactions that facilitate the intuitive modification of complex structures at multiple scales. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on an experimental use case. Moreover, feedback from our collaborating domain experts confirmed an increased time efficiency and certainty for analysis and modification tasks on complex DNA structures. Our method thus offers exciting new opportunities with promising applications in medicine and biotechnology.
Autors: Haichao Miao;Elisa De Llano;Johannes Sorger;Yasaman Ahmadi;Tadija Kekic;Tobias Isenberg;M. Eduard Gröller;Ivan Barišić;Ivan Viola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 1014 - 1024
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multisource Coordination Energy Management Strategy Based on SOC Consensus for a PEMFC–Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid Tramway
Abstract:
For the sake of coordinating multiple energy sources appropriately from power demand and guarantee stage of charge (SOC) consensus of the energy storage systems in different operation conditions, a multisource coordination energy management strategy based on self-convergence droop control is proposed for a large-scale and high-power hybrid tramway. A hybrid powertrain configuration that includes multiple proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems, batteries, and supercapacitors is designed for a 100% low-floor light rail vehicle (LF-LRV) tramway. According to the hybrid system model of LF-LRV tramway developed with commercial equipment, this proposed multisource coordination energy management strategy is assessed with a real driving cycle of tramway. The results obtained from RT-LAB platform testify that the proposed strategy is capable of coordinating multiple energy sources, guaranteeing the SOC consensus and improving the efficiency of overall tramway.
Autors: Ying Han;Qi Li;Tianhong Wang;Weirong Chen;Lei Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 296 - 305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Coordinated Planning of Active Distribution Networks
Abstract:
This paper introduces a multistage coordinated planning method for active distribution networks (ADN). The proposed methodology optimizes, in a coordinated manner, multiple planning alternatives, i.e., reinforcement of the existing substations and distribution lines, network expansion, as well as capacitor and voltage regulator placement in conjunction with the active management of distributed generation (DG). The active management considers the control of the active and reactive power output of the DG units. The proposed multistage coordinated planning methodology aims at minimizing the net present value of the network investment cost. To handle the high complexity of the planning problem, two successive planning procedures are developed. First, the location and capacity of the multiple planning alternatives are computed incorporating the active management of DG. Afterwards, using a heuristic approach, the time period for the commissioning of the computed network investments along the planning period is defined. To validate its effectiveness and performance, the proposed method is applied to a 24-bus distribution test system and a real-world 267-bus distribution system.
Autors: Nikolaos C. Koutsoukis;Pavlos S. Georgilakis;Nikos D. Hatziargyriou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 32 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Stochastic Investment Planning With Multiscale Representation of Uncertainties and Decisions
Abstract:
We propose a multistage multiscale linear stochastic model to optimize electricity generation, storage, and transmission investments over a long planning horizon. The multiscale structure captures “large-scale” uncertainties, such as investment and fuel-cost changes and long-run demand-growth rates, and “small-scale” uncertainties, such as hour-to-hour demand and renewable-availability uncertainty. The model also includes a detailed treatment of operating periods so that the effect of dispatch decisions on long-term investments are captured. The proposed model can be large in size. The progressive hedging algorithm is applied to decompose the model by scenario, greatly reducing computation times. We also derive bounds on the optimal objective-function value, to assess solution quality. We use a case study based on the state of Texas to demonstrate the model and show the benefits of its detailed representation of the operating periods in making investment decisions.
Autors: Yixian Liu;Ramteen Sioshansi;Antonio J. Conejo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 781 - 791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Coupling Between Submicrostrip Grid Arrays on Electrically Thin Substrate
Abstract:
This communication presents a study of mutual coupling between submicrostrip grid arrays on electrically thin substrate. It is found that the mutual coupling between subgrid arrays on electronically thin substrate is mainly caused by dielectric polarization currents. High isolation between subgrid arrays can be achieved by proper selection of the antenna array factor and size. A particular example of microstrip grid array antenna with five subarrays is developed on RT/duroid 5880 substrate for simultaneous transmit and receive application with high measured isolation of 65.07 dB at 24.15 GHz between transmitting and receiving antennas.
Autors: Zihao Chen;Yue Ping Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 467 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MV Generator Ground Fault Arcing Power Damage Assessment
Abstract:
An industrial medium voltage (MV) system usually consists of multiple power sources such as utility tie transformers and generators. These are normally low-resistance grounding as shown in Fig. 1 . When a ground fault occurs at the generator stator, ground currents from its own neutral circuit and external power sources will flow into the fault and cause damages to the stator winding. The IEEE Generator Grounding Working Group issued a guideline for generator grounding practices, which recommends using a hybrid grounding system to minimize the ground fault damage induced by its own neutral grounding source. This paper will evaluate the total ground fault damages based on the arcing power energy to derive a maximum MV system ground current that would limit the ground damage to 1800 kW-cycle or 30 kJ as the minimum arcing power energy damage as suggested by Conrad and Dalasta [10].
Autors: Alex Y. Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 912 - 915
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MV-FTL: An FTL That Provides Page-Level Multi-Version Management
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose MV-FTL, a multi-version flash transition layer (FTL) that provides page-level multi-version management. By extending a unique characteristic of solid-state drives (SSDs), the out-of-place (OoP) update to multi-version management, MV-FTL can both guarantee atomic page updates from each transaction and provide concurrency without requiring redundant log data writes as well. For evaluation, we first modified SQLite, a lightweight database management system (DBMS), to cooperate with MV-FTL. Owing to the architectural simplicity of SQLite, we clearly show that MV-FTL improves both the performance and the concurrency aspects of the system. In addition, to prove the effectiveness in a full-fledged enterprise-level DBMS, we modified MyRocks, a MySQL variant by Facebook, to use our new Patch Compaction algorithm, which deeply relies on MV-FTL. The TPC-C and LinkBench benchmark tests demonstrated that MV-FTL reduces the overall amount of writes, implying that MV-FTL can be effective in such DBMSs.
Autors: Doogie Lee;Mincheol Shin;Wongi Choi;Hongchan Roh;Sanghyun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 87 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MyBrush: Brushing and Linking with Personal Agency
Abstract:
We extend the popular brushing and linking technique by incorporating personal agency in the interaction. We map existing research related to brushing and linking into a design space that deconstructs the interaction technique into three components: source (what is being brushed), link (the expression of relationship between source and target), and target (what is revealed as related to the source). Using this design space, we created MyBrush, a unified interface that offers personal agency over brushing and linking by giving people the flexibility to configure the source, link, and target of multiple brushes. The results of three focus groups demonstrate that people with different backgrounds leveraged personal agency in different ways, including performing complex tasks and showing links explicitly. We reflect on these results, paving the way for future research on the role of personal agency in information visualization.
Autors: Philipp Koytek;Charles Perin;Jo Vermeulen;Elisabeth André;Sheelagh Carpendale;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 605 - 615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrow-Linewidth 780-nm DFB Lasers Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography
Abstract:
This letter presents narrow-linewidth 780-nm edge-emitting semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated without re-growth using UV-nanoimprinted surface gratings. The third-order laterally coupled ridge-waveguide surface gratings enable single mode operation, excellent spectral purity (40–55 dB side mode suppression ratio and 10-kHz linewidth), and good light–current–voltage characteristics in continuous wave operation (~112-mA threshold current, ~1.55-V opening voltage, and 28.9-mW output power from one facet at 300-mA current for 2.4-mm-long devices), which are vital in various applications, such as rubidium spectroscopy and atomic clock pumping. The low fabrication cost, high throughput, structural flexibility, and high device yield make the fabrication method fully compatible with large-scale mass production, enabling the fabrication of low-cost miniaturized modules.
Autors: Heikki Virtanen;Topi Uusitalo;Maija Karjalainen;Sanna Ranta;Jukka Viheriälä;Mihail Dumitrescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 51 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrowband and Wideband Off-Grid Direction-of-Arrival Estimation via Sparse Bayesian Learning
Abstract:
The sparse Bayesian learning based relevance vector machine (SBLRVM) algorithm is a promising algorithm to estimate the directions-of-arrival (DOAs) of multiple narrowband signals. The parameters involved in the DOA estimation model are automatically estimated by the algorithm that makes it more attractive than the deterministic sparsity based DOA estimation algorithms in which fine-tuning of parameters is necessary. However, one limitation of the algorithm is that it assumes the DOAs of the signals to be exactly aligned with the angular grids, which may not be true in practice. In this paper, we first propose an off-grid version of the narrowband SBLRVM algorithm. Next, we propose an off-grid wideband SBLRVM algorithm. The algorithms assume that the true scenario DOAs of the signals are not exactly aligned with the angular grids and the parameters of the algorithms are automatically estimated by the expectation maximization approach. In the wideband DOA estimation algorithm, we estimate one spatial power spectrum by simultaneously exploiting sparsity from all frequency bins. We demonstrate the application of the proposed algorithms by analyzing data from the shallow water HF ocean acoustic experiment. The estimated DOAs of a narrowband tonal from the experiment by using our proposed narrowband DOA estimation algorithm are consistent with the nonadaptive conventional beamformer. Processing a wideband chirp from the experiment shows that estimating one spatial power spectrum by simultaneously exploiting sparsity from all frequency bins using the proposed wideband DOA estimation algorithm is a more valuable processor than an incoherent combination of the power spectra from the individual frequency bins estimated using the proposed narrowband DOA estimation algorithm. Moreover, since our proposed algorithms are off-grid algorithms, an empirical analysis for the choice of the discreti- ation interval of the angular spread is not required as opposed to the on-grid DOA estimation algorithms. This results in a reduced computational complexity.
Autors: Anup Das;Terrence J. Sejnowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 108 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nature of Sideband Generation
Abstract:
The serious investigation of sidebands (SBs), which are the result of nonlinear processes, began in the late 19th century when research was being conducted on amplitude modulation (Panter, 1965). In 1875, A.M. Mayer experimentally proved the existence of SBs. In 1886, M. Leblanc was likely the first to amplitude modulate a carrier signal with speech. Later, in 1894, Lord Rayleigh theoretically demonstrated the existence of SBs.
Autors: Don E. Czyzyk;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near MAP Dynamical Delay Estimator and Bayesian CRB for Coded QAM Signals
Abstract:
This paper presents an off-line algorithm for dynamical time delay recovery for which the whole observation block is used. The time offset varies over the observation interval following a random walk model. The proposed synchronizer applies to data-aided (DA), non-data-aided (NDA), and code-aided (CA) modes. Theoretical performance of the off-line technique is derived and compared with simulation results. The Bayesian Cramer-Rao Bound (BCRB) is also evaluated for DA, NDA, and CA modes and for both the off-line and on-line scenarios. Simulation results show the improvement brought by the off-line and the CA schemes. The presented algorithm outperforms the conventional on-line estimator, which only considers the current and previous observations, and its mean square error approaches the BCRB.
Autors: Imen Nasr;Leïla Najjar Atallah;Sofiane Cherif;Benoît Geller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 636 - 651
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Field Inductive-Coupling Link to Power a Three-Dimensional Millimeter-Size Antenna for Brain Implantable Medical Devices
Abstract:
Objective: Near-field inductive-coupling link can establish a reliable power source to a batteryless implantable medical device based on Faraday's law of induction. Methods: In this paper, the design, modeling, and experimental verification of an inductive-coupling link between an off-body loop antenna and a 0.9  three-dimensional (3-D) bowtie brain implantable antenna is presented. To ensure reliability of the design, the implantable antenna is embedded in the cerebral spinal fluid of a realistic human head model. Exposure, temperature, and propagation simulations of the near electromagnetic fields in a frequency-dispersive head model were carried out to comply with the IEEE safety standards. Concertedly, a fabrication process for the implantable antenna is proposed, which can be extended to devise and miniaturize different 3-D geometric shapes. Results: The performance of the proposed inductive link was tested in a biological environment; in vitro measurements of the fabricated prototypes were carried in a pig's head and piglet. The measurements of the link gain demonstrated   in the pig's head and   in piglet. Significance: The in vitro measurement results showed that the proposed 3-D implantable antenna is suitable for integration with a miniaturized batteryless brain implantable med- cal device (BIMD).
Autors: Mohamed Manoufali;Konstanty Bialkowski;Beadaa Jasem Mohammed;Paul C. Mills;Amin Abbosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 4 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Memory Acceleration for Radio Astronomy
Abstract:
Processing-in-memory and near-memory computing have recently been rediscovered as a way to alleviate the “memory wall problem” of traditional computing architectures. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of a 3D-stacked near-memory accelerator, targeting radio astronomy and scientific applications. After exploring the design space of the architecture by focusing on minimizing the execution power of the processing pipeline of the SKA1-Low central signal processor, we show that our accelerator can achieve an energy efficiency of up to 390 GFLOPS/W, corresponding to an energy consumption one order of magnitude lower than alternative state-of-the-art implementations. When running additional mathematical and streaming-oriented kernels, our accelerator achieves from 6.4 to 20 energy efficiency improvement compared to alternative solutions.
Autors: Leandro Fiorin;Rik Jongerius;Erik Vermij;Jan van Lunteren;Christoph Hagleitner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 115 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Necessary Condition-Based Detector for Generalized Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a low-complexity detection algorithm for generalized space shift keying MIMO systems. First, the maximum likelihood detection is posed as a binary quadratic programming (BQP) problem. Then, we derive an optimal decision rule based on the necessary global optimality condition of BQP. Using this rule, most entries of solution can be determined optimally with only per-bit complexity. Furthermore, taking advantage of the determined entries, the original programming can be reduced to a smaller-scale one only including the undetermined entries. Finally, we can use some conventional detectors to solve the remained small-scale problem with a lower complexity. Simulation results substantiate the performance of the proposed detector.
Autors: Wenlong Liu;Yuanlong Gao;Ziyi Gu;Minglu Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 53 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Differential Resistance and Steep Switching in Chevron Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
We show that recently fabricated Chevron-type graphene nanoribbons act as a monolithic superlattice structure. This is enabled by the large periodic unit cells with regions of different effective bandgaps in these nanoribbons, resulting in minibands and gaps in the density of states above the conduction band edge. Quantum transport calculations based on non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism reveal that a negative differential resistance (NDR) is expected to manifest in these nanoribbons. Due to the relatively low density of states, such NDR behavior can also be modulated with a gate electric field. We show that a sub-thermal subthreshold swing () can potentially be obtained in a three-terminal configuration, even in the presence of optical phonon scattering.
Autors: Samuel Smith;Juan-Pablo Llinás;Jeffrey Bokor;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 143 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Iris Recognition
Abstract:
Elements of a person's biometrics are typically stable over the duration of a lifetime, and thus, it is highly important to protect biometric data while supporting recognition (it is also called secure biometric recognition). However, the biometric data that are derived from a person usually vary slightly due to a variety of reasons, such as distortion during picture capture, and it is difficult to use traditional techniques, such as classical encryption algorithms, in secure biometric recognition. The negative database (NDB) is a new technique for privacy preservation. Reversing the NDB has been demonstrated to be an NP-hard problem, and several algorithms for generating hard-to-reverse NDBs have been proposed. In this paper, first, we propose negative iris recognition, which is a novel secure iris recognition scheme that is based on the NDB. We show that negative iris recognition supports several important strategies in iris recognition, e.g., shifting and masking. Next, we analyze the security and efficiency of negative iris recognition. Experimental results show that negative iris recognition is an effective and secure iris recognition scheme. Specifically, negative iris recognition can achieve a highly promising recognition performance (i.e., GAR = 98.94% at FAR = 0.01%, EER = 0.60%) on the typical database CASIA-IrisV3-Interval.
Autors: Dongdong Zhao;Wenjian Luo;Ran Liu;Lihua Yue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 112 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negotiated Decentralized Aircraft Conflict Resolution
Abstract:
This paper describes a sequential bargaining process that provides negotiated, decentralized aircraft conflict resolution. This process is decentralized in that it allows each aircraft to propose its own trajectories and assess their cost using its own private information. At each stage in the process, aircraft broadcast to each other proposed trajectories and then identify the response trajectories they would need to fly to avoid a conflict with the other’s proposed trajectories. If the cost of any response trajectory is less than or equal to its corresponding proposed trajectory, then a resolution has been found; otherwise, the process iterates with the requirement that the next set of proposed trajectories incur greater portions of the cost of resolving the conflict. Convergence of the process and methods for describing constraints on the trajectories is examined in computational experiments. Finally, the process is demonstrated in a large-scale simulation spanning an en route air traffic control center’s operations for five hours.
Autors: Amy R. Pritchett;Antoine Genton;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 81 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network and Service Management
Abstract:
The series presents articles on the latest developments, highlighting recent research achievements and providing insight into both theoretical and practical issues related to the evolution of the network and service management discipline from different perspectives. The series provides a forum for the publication of both academic and industrial research, addressing the state of the art, theory and practice in network and service management.
Autors: Marinos Charalambides;Jurgen Schonwalder;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 156 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New CO2 Concentration Predictions and Spectral Estimation Applied to the Vostok Ice Core
Abstract:
The Vostok ice core provides measurements of the CO2 concentration during the last years (yr). Estimations of power spectra show peaks, with the strongest one corresponding to a time period of around yr. In this paper, a new reconstruction method from irregular sampling is used, allowing more accurate estimation of spectral peaks. This method intrinsically decomposes the analyzed signal as a sum of sines, providing amplitudes but also phase measurements of periodic tendencies (due to the nature of the studied phenomena). This decomposition can be conducted with noisy and inaccurate measurements of the sampling instants and the concentrations. The widely used Vostok data were chosen as an example, but the method could also be applied to data from other places (e.g., dome C, Antarctica) or to study other phenomena as nitrogen dioxide NO2, methane CH4, oxygen isotope 18O (closely linked to temperature), deuterium 2H, or dust concentrations.
Autors: David Bonacci;Bernard Lacaze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 145 - 151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Heights for Satellites: LTCC Multilayer Technology for Future Satellites
Abstract:
Over the past few years, the demands on satellite communication have undergone significant changes, and, as a consequence, its technologies and system designs are also changing in important ways. Since the introduction of high-definition television, classical geostationary (GEO) satellites in orbit at 36,800 km must transmit higher data rates. Also, GEO satellites are increasingly used for global data transfer, e.g., for Internet applications and business communication. As a consequence, higher-frequency bandwidth, higher transmitting frequencies in the millimeter-wave range, and efficient frequency reuse are needed [1].
Autors: Ingo Wolff;Carsten Günner;Jürgen Kassner;Reinhard Kulke;Peter Uhlig;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 36 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Receding Horizon FIR Estimator for Blind Smart Sensing of Velocity via Position Measurements
Abstract:
Smart sensors often require that embedded estimators are robust and blind for given averaging horizons. This brief proposes a new receding horizon (RH) finite impulse response (FIR) velocity estimator that fits these needs by utilizing data from recent discrete position measurements with fading weights. The conventional Kalman estimator typically exhibits poor performance and may even diverge under imprecisely defined noise statistics and/or numerical errors. In contrast, the proposed weighted RH FIR estimator does not require any information about noise, which makes it more robust and blind for a given . The weighted RH FIR estimator minimizes the effects of uncertainties caused by imprecisely defined noise statistics and/or numerical errors and demonstrates better robustness than the existing FIR estimators. We also discuss how to choose the optimal horizon size for the weighted RH FIR estimator. The better performance of the proposed weighted RH FIR estimator against the Kalman and FIR estimators is shown through simulations under diverse operation conditions.
Autors: Choon Ki Ahn;Yuriy S. Shmaliy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 135 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New SMC Materials for Small Electrical Machine With Very Good Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
A new technology may be proposed for the realization of the magnetic parts of electromechanical devices, mainly for small electric machines. Such a technology provides the substitution of the traditional magnetic sheets with parts obtained by molding special magnetic powders [soft magnetic composites (SMC)]. The advantages may be constituted not only by economical reasons, but mostly by the possibility to realize parts having shapes otherwise impossible with the traditional lamination. Some commercial products are available in the market as “ready to press” powders, but their mechanical properties are in general not sufficient. To investigate the possibility to obtain good mechanical properties maintaining the magnetic characteristics of a selected commercial insulated iron powder compound, the authors have conducted a research activity based on the use of special iron powders and a selected epoxy resin as binder. The paper describes the activity carried out for the realization of SMC by mixing iron powders and Epoxy resin with different binder percentages and molding pressures. The obtained results have to be considered very satisfactory and suggest to continue the research argument to explore the possibilities of further improvements.
Autors: Marco Actis Grande;Luca Ferraris;Fausto Franchini;Emir Pošković;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 195 - 203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Stability Criteria of Delayed Load Frequency Control Systems via Infinite-Series-Based Inequality
Abstract:
A new approach is proposed for the stability problem of delayed load frequency control (LFC) scheme with fixed and time-varying delay cases included in the current paper. New stability criteria with delay dependence in terms of linear matrix inequalities for LFC systems are derived by a novel augmented Lyapunov–Krasovski (L–K) functional. Our proof deployment for system stability of power grids employs the further improved integral inequality in the form of infinite series, which turns out to be less conservative than Wirtinger's inequality that encompasses Jensen inequality. Simulation case studies are carried out to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented delay-dependent PI-type LFC design scheme.
Autors: Feisheng Yang;Jing He;Dianhui Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 231 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Structural Design of Gated Lateral Bipolar Junction Transistor for Sensor Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a gated lateral bipolar junction transistor (GLBJT) that has a cascade structure, resulting in improved sensing performance over conventional GLBJTs. The device can be operated in bipolar junction transistor (BJT) mode, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) mode, and a hybrid MOSFET-BJT mode under input bias control. The device exhibits higher transconductance than that of conventional GLBJTs owing to the cascade structure using pMOSFET. The cascade effect generated in the proposed device is shown to increase the transconductance, and the results from two experiments [pH response and C-reactive protein (CRP)-antigen detection] demonstrate that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor exceeds that of conventional GLBJTs. The proposed device offers approximately 2.5 times that the sensitivity of conventional GLBJTs in the pH and CRP-antigen detection experiments. These results confirm that the proposed device has enhanced sensitivity and suggests the possibility of realizing more efficient sensors with better sensitivity than that of conventional GLBJTs.
Autors: Hyun-Min Jeong;Jin-Beom Kwon;Hyurk-Choon Kwon;Ju-Seong Kim;Binrui Xu;Dae-Hyuk Kwon;Shin-Won Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 243 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Verification Strategy for Finger-Vein Recognition System
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new finger-vein recognition system that uses a binary robust invariant elementary feature from accelerated segment test feature points and an adaptive thresholding strategy. Subsequently, the proposed a multi-image quality assessments (MQA) are applied to conduct a second stage verification. As oppose to other studies, the region of interest is directly identified using a range of normalized feature point area, which reduces the complexity of pre-processing. This recognition structure allows an efficient feature points matching using a robust feature and rigorous verification using the MQA process. As a result, this method not only reduces the system computation time, comparisons against former relevant studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.
Autors: Chih-Hsien Hsia;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 790 - 797
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Year Editorial
Abstract:
Dear TCAS-I Readers, Happy 2018! As I start my second two-year term (2018–19) as the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers (TCAS-I), I am excited by the opportunities that lie ahead and look forward to working with all of you. I am writing to give you an update on the status of TCAS-I and future plans.
Autors: Andreas Demosthenous;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 1 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Year Message From the Editor-in-Chief
Abstract:
Autors: Bin He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Newton–Raphson Solver for Finite Element Methods Featuring Nonlinear Hysteresis Models
Abstract:
It is well known that the Newton–Raphson method is the most popular iterative method for nonlinear finite element problems. The method has a quadratic convergence. Under certain conditions on the Jacobian of the functional and the initial guess the Newton–Raphson method can converge very fast. However, standard evaluation of such Jacobian may not be possible for the solution of nonlinear hysteresis field problems. This is due to the nature of the magnetization curves that may not be differentiable or possess a very steep gradient. In this paper, an alternative finite element implementation using the Newton–Raphson method for hysteresis field problems is described in detail. To improve the convergence of the method, a method for evaluation of the initial guess is also proposed. It is shown that the Newton method can be reliably used for solving hysteresis field problems.
Autors: Abdoulkadri Chama;Stiaan Gerber;Rong-Jie Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Background Levels and Noise Event Tracking/Characterization Under the Arctic Ice Pack: Experiment, Data Analysis, and Modeling
Abstract:
In March 2014, an Arctic Line Arrays System (ALAS) was deployed as part of an experiment in the Beaufort Sea (approximate location 72.323 N, 146.490 W). The water depth was greater than 3500 m. The background noise levels in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 25 kHz were measured. The goal was to have a three-dimensional sparse array that would allow determination of the direction of sound sources out to hundreds of kilometers and both direction and range of sound sources out to 1–2 km from the center of the array. ALAS started recording data at 02:12 on March 10, 2014 (UTC). It recorded data nearly continuously at a sample rate of 50 kHz until 11:04 on March 24, 2014. Background noise spectral levels are presented for low and high floe-drift conditions. Tracking/characterization results for ice-cracking events (with signatures typically in the 10–2000-Hz band), including the initiation of an open lead within about 400 m of the array, and one seismic event (with a signature in the 1–40-Hz band) are presented. Results from simple modeling indicate that the signature of a lead formation may be a combination of both previously hypothesized physics and enhanced emissions near the ice plate critical frequency (where the flexural wave speed equals that of the water sound speed). For the seismic event, the T-wave arrival time results indicate that a significant amount of energy coupled to T-wave energy somewhere along the path between the earthquake and ALAS.
Autors: Kevin L. Williams;Michael L. Boyd;Alexander G. Soloway;Eric I. Thorsos;Steven G. Kargl;Robert I. Odom;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 145 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Limits in Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Sensors With Magnetic Frequency Conversion
Abstract:
To enable the measurement of low-frequency magnetic signals with cantilever type thin-film magnetoelectric sensors, magnetic frequency conversion transfers the frequency of the desired signal into the mechanical resonance of the cantilever. The system electronics for the realization of this approach and the approach itself introduce additional noise sources as compared with direct detection, which lowers the limit of detection. In this paper, the magnetic frequency conversion noise sources are reviewed, discussed, and evaluated for our setup. The model for the nonlinear transfer process is implemented in the time domain. This enables the consideration of the pump noise in a noise equivalent circuit. For the sensor type under investigation, the dominant noise near its optimal working point originates from the pump source. If the noise of the pump can be decreased and magnetic excess noise is not dominant, the noise limit is the thermal-mechanical noise of the sensor. The implementation of a filter after the excitation source decreases the limit of detection to 60 pT/ at 10 Hz.
Autors: Sebastian Salzer;Volker Röbisch;Matic Klug;Phillip Durdaut;Jeffrey McCord;Dirk Meyners;Jens Reermann;Michael Höft;Reinhard Knöchel;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 596 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Convex Phase Retrieval From STFT Measurements
Abstract:
The problem of recovering a one-dimensional signal from its Fourier transform magnitude, called Fourier phase retrieval, is ill-posed in most cases. We consider the closely-related problem of recovering a signal from its phaseless short-time Fourier transform (STFT) measurements. This problem arises naturally in several applications, such as ultra-short laser pulse characterization and ptychography. The redundancy offered by the STFT enables unique recovery under mild conditions. We show that in some cases the unique solution can be obtained by the principal eigenvector of a matrix, constructed as the solution of a simple least-squares problem. When these conditions are not met, we suggest using the principal eigenvector of this matrix to initialize non-convex local optimization algorithms and propose two such methods. The first is based on minimizing the empirical risk loss function, while the second maximizes a quadratic function on the manifold of phases. We prove that under appropriate conditions, the proposed initialization is close to the underlying signal. We then analyze the geometry of the empirical risk loss function and show numerically that both gradient algorithms converge to the underlying signal even with small redundancy in the measurements. In addition, the algorithms are robust to noise.
Autors: Tamir Bendory;Yonina C. Eldar;Nicolas Boumal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 467 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Invasive Identification of Inertia Distribution Change in High Renewable Systems Using Distribution Level PMU
Abstract:
This letter proposed an approach to identify the change of inertia distribution in high renewable power systems. Using the footprints of electromechanical wave propagation at the distribution level, this approach provides a new and non-invasive way to aware the system inertia distribution for primary frequency response. Actual measurements and high renewable dynamic models validated effectiveness of the approach.
Autors: Shutang You;Yong Liu;Gefei Kou;Xuemeng Zhang;Wenxuan Yao;Yu Su;Stanton W. Hadley;Yilu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1110 - 1112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Linear Programming: Maximize SINR for Designing Spreading Sequence
Abstract:
Signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) is an important index for wireless communications. This paper shows a method to derive spreading sequences utilized in code division multiple access systems as the solutions of the non-linear programming: maximize SINR. To this end, we consider a frequency-selective wide-sense-stationary uncorrelated-scattering channel and obtain the worst case of SINR. In the course of the evaluation, we derive an expression of SINR, whose main terms consist of periodic correlation terms and odd periodic correlation terms. Also, we show a relation between SINR and mean square correlations. With our expression, we obtain the problem: maximize SINR. Since this problem is not convex, we obtain the relaxed problem with a semidefinite relaxation technique. From this relaxed problem, we obtain the approximated solutions and evaluate the bit error rate for the solutions.
Autors: Hirofumi Tsuda;Ken Umeno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 278 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 

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