Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Fully Integrated High-Sensitivity Wide Dynamic Range PPG Sensor With an Integrated Photodiode and an Automatic Dimming Control LED Driver
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and implementation for a photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor with an integrated photodiode and an automatic dimming control LED driver. The PPG front end is designed with a programmable low-pass cutoff frequency from 5 Hz up to 35 Hz, a high-pass cutoff frequency of 0.1 Hz, a total input referred noise current of 79 pA, and a maximum transimpedance gain of 144 dB. The sensor fabricated in 0.35- CMOS technology and consumes 1.4 mA from 2.7 V–4 V single power supply. The integrated LED driver uses a duty cycle control at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz and 1% duty cycle. The LED driver can supply four LEDs each with 10 mA. An automatic dimming control is implemented to reduce the LEDs current at strong PPG signal strength, to reduce the LEDs power consumption.
Autors: Mohamed Atef;Min Wang;Guoxing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 652 - 659
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fundamental Tradeoff Between Computation and Communication in Distributed Computing
Abstract:
How can we optimally trade extra computing power to reduce the communication load in distributed computing? We answer this question by characterizing a fundamental tradeoff between computation and communication in distributed computing, i.e., the two are inversely proportional to each other. More specifically, a general distributed computing framework, motivated by commonly used structures like MapReduce, is considered, where the overall computation is decomposed into computing a set of “Map” and “Reduce” functions distributedly across multiple computing nodes. A coded scheme, named “coded distributed computing” (CDC), is proposed to demonstrate that increasing the computation load of the Map functions by a factor of (i.e., evaluating each function at carefully chosen nodes) can create novel coding opportunities that reduce the communication load by the same factor. An information-theoretic lower bound on the communication load is also provided, which matches the communication load achieved by the CDC scheme. As a result, the optimal computation-communication tradeoff in distributed computing is exactly characterized. Finally, the coding techniques of CDC is applied to the Hadoop TeraSort benchmark to develop a novel CodedTeraSort algorithm, which is empirically demonstrated to speed up the overall job execution by – , for typical settings of interest.
Autors: Songze Li;Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali;Qian Yu;A. Salman Avestimehr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 109 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gauss–Newton ADALINE for Dynamic Phasor Estimation of Power Signals and Its FPGA Implementation
Abstract:
This paper presents a new hybrid adaptive filter based on modified Gauss–Newton adaptive linear element (MGNA) for estimating the fundamental and harmonic phasors along with the frequency change of nonstationary power system signals useful in many application areas that include system control, digital relaying, state estimation, and also wide area systems. The proposed approach is used to minimize an objective function based on weighted square of the error using the MGNA. Moreover, the inverse of the Hessian matrix is computed assuming certain approximations to reduce the computational load and time consumption. Furthermore, it also uses recursive formulation using the estimated values from the previous time instant unlike the nonrecursive approaches, thereby exhibiting better performance in terms of accuracy and convergence. Besides, its simple structure makes it more suitable for real-time applications. In addition, the filter has been implemented on a field programmable gate array hardware and Xilinx 14.2 with the Sysgen software for the estimation of frequency, fundamental, and harmonic phasors of single and three-phase time-varying power system signals.
Autors: Sarita Nanda;Pradipta Kishore Dash;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 45 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized and Flexible Control Scheme for Photovoltaic Grid-Tie Microinverters
Abstract:
In this paper, design and implementation of a flyback photovoltaic (PV) microinverter based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS) technique has been described for both the standalone and the grid-connected operation. The DDS technique adopted provides flexibility in the implementation of various control schemes of the PV microinverter on a simple low-cost digital signal processing type of microprocessor (dsPIC). As compared with the conventional look-up-table method used for generating sinusoidal output voltage waveforms by digital signal processing, a much higher resolution can be obtained in the voltage phase angle and magnitude owing to the adaptive nature of the look-up table implemented within the DDS architecture. The DDS technique is used in the implementation of all control schemes of a PV microinverter, such as maximum power point tracking (MPPT), phase-locked-loop (PLL), anti-islanding, and low-voltage ride-though (LVRT), with an integrated software run on a simple microcontroller. A dedicated computer simulation model is developed, where the PV panel model, the PLL in DQ reference frame, the MPPT algorithm, and the anti-islanding and LVRT features are all taken into account. The experimental results obtained on a 120-W PV flyback microinverter have verified the validity of the proposed technique for both the steady-state and the transient-state operation. The DDS technique is thus found to be quite convenient for application to module integrated converters.
Autors: Serkan Öztürk;Işık Çadırcı;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 505 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized VNF Sharing Approach for Service Scheduling
Abstract:
Network function virtualization enables a flexible service provision by introducing the concept of virtual network function (VNF). Despite the importance of VNF scheduling, it is largely unexplored. In this letter, we propose a new model for VNF scheduling based on the min-plus algebra theory. The main idea of this model is to share the deployed VNF instances among different services, thus to improve the resource utilization and reduce the resource fragmentation generated by deploying many VNF instances. In addition, a weight-based VNF sharing scheduling approach is proposed in this model to achieve a fair scheduling among the arriving service requests. The experimental results show that the proposed model and approach are effective and efficient.
Autors: Bo Yi;Xingwei Wang;Min Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 73 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graphical Approach to Incident Energy Analysis
Abstract:
The goal of an incident energy analysis is to determine the largest incident energy that a worker could be exposed to at a piece of electrical equipment. This is most commonly done using the IEEE 1584 method. It is a common observation when performing this analysis that minor variations in fault current can result in large changes in a protective device's operating time and the resulting incident energy. This would not be a problem if it was possible to remove all errors from the bolted fault calculation and the arcing fault calculation. Unfortunately, the arcing fault current calculation has some margin of error and the data used in arc flash models are often estimated. A graphical approach to determining the incident energy circumvents these problems and ensures that the worst-case incident energy is determined. This graphical approach is derived from graphs of incident energy based on protective device time–current curves. An examination of the resultant graphs reveals a few maximums in the incident energy curve. These maximums are caused by the protective devices curve, the minimum and maximum arcing fault currents, and any time limitations that are applied. As a result, the locations of these maximums are easily predicted allowing the maximum incident energy to be determined by performing the IEEE 1584 calculation at a few key current values.
Autors: Rick Lutz;Maximilian Charbonneau;Michael Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 815 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical Jammed-Area Mapping Service for Ubiquitous Communication in Smart Communities
Abstract:
Smart communities are an emerging communication paradigm that mobilizes physical devices operating in different wireless networks to deliver ubiquitous services. Since wireless communication is vulnerable to physical or link layer jamming, it is essential to map the locations and shapes of jammed regions for adjusting routing policy. However, existing mapping strategies require jammed devices to override the carrier sense multiple access limitation for the declaration of jamming. Besides, the utilization of flat network architectures in existing mapping strategies incurs large communication overhead. In this article, a three-layer hierarchical network structure and a matching top-down mapping mechanism are proposed. Through organizing smart nodes into onehop clusters, the jamming phenomenon can be discovered purely from cluster heads' data reports collected in the sink layer. Each one-hop cluster is also used as a basic mapping unit to identify and measure jammed regions. From cluster-level mapping to sensor-level mapping, jammed areas can be mapped from coarse- to fine-grained. Simulation results demonstrate that the mapping traffic involved in the proposed jammed-area mapping strategy can be reduced substantially.
Autors: Guangjie Han;Li Liu;Wenbo Zhang;Sammy Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 92 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical Scheme for Utilizing Plug-In Electric Vehicle Power to Hedge Against Wind-Induced Unit Ramp Cycling Operations
Abstract:
Increasing wind power (WP) integration is forcing conventional units to go through more frequent and significant cycling operations, which would accelerate wear and tear to unit components and eventually affect the unit's lifespan. In this context, this paper proposes a hierarchical scheme to control the power of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to mitigate unit ramp cycling (URC) operations. A general-form representation of the URC operation is proposed for the first time. At the top level of the hierarchical scheme, a system net load variation range (NLVR) is constructed first to capture the uncertainty in WP forecasts, and then the PEV power is scheduled to reshape the NLVR so as to minimize the URC operations that can be caused by the possible net load realizations in the NLVR. Based on updated WP forecasts, the middle-level dispatch model exempts overscheduled anti-URC regulation onus on PEVs to promote PEV charging. At the bottom level, a decentralized PEV charging control strategy is used to implement the PEV power dispatch instruction. Simulation results verify that the proposed scheme can avert the URC operations effectively, while preserve most of the desired PEV charging energy. Simulation results also show that the proposed scheme is more capable of withstanding WP forecast errors compared with its deterministic version and a benchmark scheme.
Autors: Xiao Luo;Shiwei Xia;Ka Wing Chan;Xi Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 55 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Linearity 24-GHz Down-Conversion Mixer Using Distributed Derivative Superposition Technique in 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS Process
Abstract:
This letter presents a 24-GHz down-conversion mixer with built-in linearizer in 0.18- CMOS process. The mixer attains −4.5 ± 0.6 dB conversion gain and 23-dBm IIP3 with 5-dBm local-oscillator power by adopting double-balanced Gilbert-cell mixers with a distributed derivative superposition linearizer. The improvement of IIP3 is 9 dB. The dc power consumption of the proposed mixer is 16 mW. This mixer has the best IIP3 compared with other published CMOS mixer in the K-band.
Autors: Hung-Hao Lin;Yu-Hsuan Lin;Huei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 49 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Step-Down Dual Output Nonisolated DC/DC Converter With Decoupled Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a dc/dc buck–boost converter topology with high-voltage gain and dual outputs. Unlike many of the high step-down/step-up dc/dc converters, this topology uses a relatively ower number of LC components and three active semiconductor devices switched in a nonoverlapping way. Due to the duty cycle limitation, high gain (typically more than 4) is very difficult to achieve in a single-stage regular buck–boost dc/dc converter. In the proposed converter, the overall gains at both the output ports are nonlinear functions of duty-cycles of the power devices, which help achieve an overall step-down/step-up gain of 10–15. An experimental prototype converting 48 V dc to ±5 V dc at 100 W with closed loop control is developed in order to verify the operation and effectiveness of the proposed converter structure. An output voltage ripple of ±1% and a conversion efficiency of 94% are achieved according to the experimental results.
Autors: Ayan Mallik;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 722 - 731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Definition LIDAR System Based on Two-Mirror Deflection Scanners
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of adopting a state-of-art laser marking system with a two-mirror deflection scanner to make a high-definition light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. To this end, a galvanometer scanner is modeled with parameterization and then the well-known raster scanning strategy is analyzed considering the physical scanning movement and the minimum spanning tree. As a result of this analysis, the relationship between the field of view (FOV) of the captured image and the scanning speed is clearly described. Furthermore, sufficient conditions are derived for an acquired image to fully cover the FOV and also for captured objects to be well aligned for a target frame rate. Finally, a prototype LIDAR system is developed to verify the proposed concepts and to prove that it successfully generates images at various resolutions depending on the target frame rates. Experimental results show that the scanner achieves the frame rates of 17.6, 9.0, and 4.6 frames per second fps for image sizes of , , and resolutions, respectively.
Autors: Xuan Truong Nguyen;Van Luan Dinh;Hyuk-Jae Lee;Hyun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 559 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Gain ${X}$ -Band Overmoded Relativistic Klystron
Abstract:
A high-gain -band overmoded relativistic klystron is presented in this paper. The device mainly consists of an input cavity, two buncher cavities, and an output cavity. Moreover, two reflectors are added before and after the input cavity, therefore a standing wave is formed between the two reflectors, improving the initial modulation of the electron beam. With two sectional RF lossy materials inserted, the input cavity and the two buncher cavities are effectively isolated with each other. An additional reflector located just before the output cavity further reflects the backward-flowing power. Particle-in-cell simulations show that for a 10-kW injected microwave with a frequency of 9.37 GHz, the generated microwave power is 1.2 GW, corresponding to a beam-wave interaction efficiency of 30% and a gain of 50.8 dB. As the injected power increases from 10 to 100 kW, the frequency control range extends from 30 to 130 MHz.
Autors: Renzhen Xiao;Changhua Chen;Yuqun Deng;Jiawei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 263 - 269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance CLYC(Ce)-PVT Composite for Neutron and Gamma Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, we fabricated and characterized a 50 mm diameter mm composite detector comprised of 9-mm diameter Cs26LiYCl6(Ce) [CLYC(Ce)] rods embedded in scintillating polyvinyltoluene (PVT). The CLYC(Ce) rods contributed to 42% of the total weight and 18.5% of the total composite volume. The scintillation performance of the CLYC(Ce)-PVT composite detector matched that of a stand-alone CLYC(Ce) crystal, with an energy resolution of 4.4% and a light yield of 18 100 ph/MeV at 662 keV. Furthermore, the composite showed excellent pulse shape discrimination, with a figure of merit of 3.2. This composite is useful for both spectroscopic and counting applications, the latter being facilitated by the high sensitivity of the scintillating polyvinytoluene. This paper demonstrates that composites offer an affordable route to large detector sizes (e.g., larger than 3-in diameter) and geometries (e.g., panels) beyond those achievable through standard crystal growth techniques.
Autors: Stephanie Lam;John Fiala;Maria Hackett;Shariar Motakef;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 609 - 615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Precision Method of Phase-Derived Velocity Measurement and Its Application in Motion Compensation of ISAR Imaging
Abstract:
The existing methods for motion compensation in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging are generally limited to the low-order target motion model, and require iterative optimization with limited velocity estimate precision and heavy computational burdens. This paper proposes a high-precision method of phase-derived velocity measurement (PDVM) and applies it to motion compensation of ISAR imaging. The method applies PDVM based on range profiles cross correlation to the translational velocity estimation of targets, and converts the velocity measurement results to the corresponding range increment. The equivalent phase-derived range measurement precision can reach the order of magnitude of millimeter (mm) or even sub-mm, which can satisfy the precision requirements of both envelope alignment and phase adjustment. The key to realizing PDVM is resolving phase ambiguity. The traditional method for resolving ambiguity has very high requirements for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This work resolves ambiguity by combining multiframe data, i.e., by resolving ambiguity of multiframe data simultaneously instead of resolving ambiguity of single-frame data independently and correcting the above ambiguity-resolving results using a minimum-entropy method. Therefore, phase ambiguity can be correctly resolved under a relatively low SNR. Experimental results of an ISAR imaging of an airplane show that the method proposed in this paper can obtain high-quality ISAR imagery, and can efficiently realize robust imaging under the conditions of low SNR.
Autors: Huayu Fan;Lixiang Ren;Erke Mao;Quanhua Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 60 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Boundary Element Model for Simulation and Optimization of Large Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays
Abstract:
A hybrid boundary element model is proposed for the simulation of large piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) arrays in immersion. Multiphysics finite element method (FEM) simulation of a single-membrane structure is used to determine stiffness and piezoelectrically induced actuation loading of the membranes. To simulate the arrays of membranes in immersion, a boundary element method is employed, wherein membrane structures are modeled by a surface mesh that is coupled mechanically by mass, stiffness, and damping matrices, and acoustically by a mutual impedance matrix. A multilevel fast multipole algorithm speeds up computation time and reduces memory usage, enabling the simulation of thousands of membranes in a reasonable time. The model is validated with FEM for a small 3 3 matrix array for both square and circular membrane geometries. Two practical optimization examples of large PMUT arrays are demonstrated: membrane spacing of a 7 7 matrix array with circular membranes, and material choice and top electrode coverage of a 32-element linear array with 640 circular membranes. In addition, a simple analytical approach to electrode optimization based on normal mode theory is verified.
Autors: Bernard Shieh;Karim G. Sabra;F. Levent Degertekin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 50 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Image Registration and Matching Framework for Real-Time Motion Tracking in MRI-Guided Radiotherapy
Abstract:
Objective: MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging treatment technique where anatomical and pathological structures are imaged through integrated MR-radiotherapy units. This work aims 1) at assessing the accuracy of optical-flow-based motion tracking in liver cine-MRI sequences; and 2) at testing a MRIgRT workflow combining similarity-based image matching with image registration. Methods: After an initialization stage, a set of template images is collected and registered to the first frame of the cine-MRI sequence. Subsequent incoming frames are either matched to the most similar template image or registered to the first frame when the similarity index is lower than a given threshold. The tracking accuracy was evaluated by considering ground-truth liver landmarks trajectories, as obtained through the scale-invariant features transform (SIFT). Results: Results on a population of 30 liver subjects show that the median difference between SIFT- and optical flow-based landmarks trajectories is 1.0 mm, i.e., lower than the cine-MRI pixel size (1.28 mm). The computational time of the motion tracking workflow (<50 ms) is suitable for real-time motion compensation in MRIgRT. Such time could be further reduced to ≍30 ms with limited loss of accuracy by the combined image matching/registration approach. Conclusion: The reported workflow allows us to track liver motion with accuracy comparable to robust feature matching. Its computational time is suitable for online motion monitoring. Significance: Real-time feedback on the patient anatomy is a crucial requirement for the treatment of mobile tumors using advanced motion mitigation strategies.
Autors: Matteo Seregni;Chiara Paganelli;Paul Summers;Massimo Bellomi;Guido Baroni;Marco Riboldi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 131 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Regularization Technique for Solving Highly Nonlinear Inverse Scattering Problems
Abstract:
Solving inverse scattering problems (ISPs) for targets with high contrasts and/or large dimensions suffer from severe ill-posedness and strong nonlinearity. Recently, a family of new integral equations (NIE) has been proposed to tackle such problems, in which the multiple scattering effects in estimating contrasts during inversions are suppressed by the local wave effects. This effectively reduces the nonlinearity of ISPs by transforming the problems into a new form. As in most inversions, to achieve better (stabler and faster) inversion efficiency, proper regularization techniques are needed. This paper provides the detailed studies on the two different types of regularization techniques in the inversions with the NIE, i.e., the twofold subspace-based optimization method, directly applied in the modeling, and the total variation type multiplicative regularization, conventionally applied on the unknowns. We will show that how each regularization works with the NIE and how they work together with the NIE to obtain the better performance in terms of reducing the nonlinearity and increasing the stability of the inversions. Numerical tests against synthetic data and experimental data are provided to verify the interests.
Autors: Kuiwen Xu;Yu Zhong;Gaofeng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 11 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A K-Band Backscatter Fiducial for Continuous Calibration in Coherent Millimeter-Wave Imaging
Abstract:
We present a modulated ultrawideband backscatter calibration target (fiducial) intended for group delay calibration in large-aperture multitransceiver millimeter-wave imagers. The fiducial is designed to resemble a modulated point scatterer across the K-band (17.5–26.5 GHz). Multiple such fiducials may be used to mitigate thermal and mechanical drift across multiple transceivers comprising the imager. This approach allows tracking and removing both time-varying amplitude and phase drift in the RF hardware and associated cables. Backscatter modulation of the fiducial allows the system to separate the fiducial from the imaged scene and clutter in the environment. We show that the −10 dB beamwidth of the proposed fiducial is approximately 84° along the azimuth plane and 60° along the elevation plane. A proof of concept group delay calibration experiment is presented for a K-band laboratory setup, where a single fiducial and a metal plate target are placed in a scene together. After the backscatter-based calibration, the measured range error of the metal plate at a two-way slant distance of 70.54 cm is reduced to only 1.06 mm (0.15% position error).
Autors: Apoorva Sharma;Andreas Pedross-Engel;Daniel Arnitz;Claire M. Watts;David R. Smith;Matthew S. Reynolds;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 431 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Large Comparison of Feature-Based Approaches for Buried Target Classification in Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar
Abstract:
Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has recently been investigated as a remote-sensing modality for buried target detection (e.g., landmines). In this context, raw FLGPR data are beamformed into images, and then, computerized algorithms are applied to automatically detect subsurface buried targets. Most existing algorithms are supervised, meaning that they are trained to discriminate between labeled target and nontarget imagery, usually based on features extracted from the imagery. A large number of features have been proposed for this purpose; however, thus far it is unclear as to which are the most effective. The first goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive comparison of detection performance using existing features on a large collection of FLGPR data. Fusion of the decisions resulting from processing each feature is also considered. The second goal of this paper is to investigate two modern feature learning approaches from the object recognition literature: the bag-of-visual words and the Fisher vector for FLGPR processing. The results indicate that the new feature learning approaches lead to the best performing FLGPR algorithm. The results also show that fusion between existing features and new features yields no additional performance improvements.
Autors: Joseph A. Camilo;Leslie M. Collins;Jordan M. Malof;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 547 - 558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Learning Scheme for Microgrid Reconnection
Abstract:
This paper introduces a potential learning scheme that can dynamically predict the stability of the reconnection of subnetworks to a main grid. As the future electrical power systems tend toward smarter and greener technology, the deployment of self sufficient networks, or microgrids, becomes more likely. Microgrids may operate on their own or synchronized with the main grid, thus control methods need to take into account islanding and reconnecting of said networks. The ability to optimally and safely reconnect a portion of the grid is not well understood and, as of now, limited to raw synchronization between interconnection points. A support vector machine (SVM) leveraging real-time data from phasor measurement units is proposed to predict in real time whether the reconnection of a subnetwork to the main grid would lead to stability or instability. A dynamics simulator fed with preacquired system parameters is used to create training data for the SVM in various operating states. The classifier was tested on a variety of cases and operating points to ensure diversity. Accuracies of approximately 85% were observed throughout most conditions when making dynamic predictions of a given network.
Autors: Carter Lassetter;Eduardo Cotilla-Sanchez;Jinsub Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 691 - 700
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Liquid-Metal Polarization-Pattern-Reconfigurable Dipole Antenna
Abstract:
An electrically actuated reconfigurable liquid-metal dipole antenna is presented. Using electrocapillary actuation, a 5 VDC signal can actuate the liquid metal Galinstan into five discrete states with varying polarizations and null directions. Local surface-energy wells built into the polyimide fixture encasing the fluids enable metastable locking of the Galinstan, eliminating the need for a continuous dc bias voltage to maintain each state.
Autors: George B. Zhang;Ryan C. Gough;Matthew R. Moorefield;Kevin J. Cho;Aaron T. Ohta;Wayne A. Shiroma;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 50 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity PTS Technique Using Minimal Trellis in OFDM Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of OFDM signals by executing partial transmit sequence (PTS) in minimal trellis of block codes. The proposed method uses a linear code with good minimal trellis to select the transmitted OFDM signal with minimum PAPR and to transmit side information with error correction. The goals of combining strategy of trellis and PTS are twofold: to provide a low complexity PTS for weighting vector search and to highlight error protection capability for side information. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves good PAPR reduction with lower complexity, compared to other PTS approaches.
Autors: Houshou Chen;Kuo-Chen Chung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 817 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Radar Cross Section and Low Profile Antenna Co-Designed With Absorbent Frequency Selective Radome
Abstract:
A low radar cross section (RCS) and low profile antenna co-designed with absorbent frequency selective radome (AFSR) is investigated. A pair of circular slot resonators is embedded on surface of the AFSR to realize a transmission window in the vertical polarization, while the wide absorption band is still maintained in the horizontal polarization. When a patch antenna is etched within the AFSR, where the metal grounds of the patch antenna and AFSR are co-used, the co-designed antenna with low RCS and low profile is thus realized. For demonstration, an AFSR is designed with its transmission window has a minimal insertion loss of 0.45 dB at 8.9 GHz, and two separate absorption bands (a lower absorption band from 4.8 to 7.5 GHz and an upper absorption band from 10 to 13 GHz) in the vertical polarization, a wide absorption band (from 4.5 to 12.5 GHz) in the horizontal polarization. A patch antenna etched within the AFSR is optimized to operate at 8.9 GHz, then it is simulated and fabricated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna not only has good radiation patterns, but also obtains significant RCS reduction.
Autors: Peng Mei;Xian Qi Lin;Jia Wei Yu;Peng Cheng Zhang;Abdelheq Boukarkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 409 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Loss Self-Packaged Magic-T With Compact Size Using SISL Technology
Abstract:
This letter proposes a low-loss self-packaged magic-T with compact size using substrate integrated suspended line (SISL) technology. The microstrip-slot transition is embedded inside the SISL multilayer structure and thus the radiation loss caused by the slot can be reduced to minimum. The measured results, which agree well with the simulation ones, show that from 5 to 9 GHz, i.e., 57% fractional bandwidth, the measured return loss of each port is better than about 10 dB, the measured isolation between difference port and sum port is better than 35 dB, and the measured amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance are ±0.8° and ±0.14 dB, respectively. The implemented magic-T has a compact size of , which is much smaller than previous designs.
Autors: Yongqiang Wang;Kaixue Ma;Shouxian Mou;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 13 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensor With Digital Correlated Multiple Sampling
Abstract:
This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor using conventional 3T active pixel with Nwell/Psub diode as photo detector. Both fixed pattern noise (FPN) and temporal noise are suppressed by the proposed digital correlated multiple sampling (DCMS) technology. FPN and temporal noise from pixel, buffer circuit, and column-parallel ADC are analyzed in detail, and the total noise with DCMS is derived. General expression of 1/f noise with correlated multiple sampling is given, illustrating impact of delay time in DCMS. Output noise of image sensor, frame rate, power, and area are affected by order and oversampling ratio of sigma–delta ADC, which are discussed for practical design. A prototype CMOS image sensor with pixel array and second-order incremental sigma–delta ADCs is implemented with the 0.35- standard CMOS process. Measurement results of the implemented image sensor show a column FPN of 0.009%, an input referred noise of 3.5 , and a dynamic range of 84 dB with oversampling ratio of 255. This indicates that image sensor with low noise can be achieved by DCMS without the CIS process and column amplification.
Autors: Nan Chen;Shengyou Zhong;Mei Zou;Jiqing Zhang;Zhongshun Ji;Libin Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 84 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Convolutional Neural Network Face Recognition Processor and a CIS Integrated With Always-on Face Detector
Abstract:
A Low-power convolutional neural network (CNN)-based face recognition system is proposed for the user authentication in smart devices. The system consists of two chips: an always-on CMOS image sensor (CIS)-based face detector (FD) and a low-power CNN processor. For always-on FD, analog–digital Hybrid Haar-like FD is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of FD by 39%. For low-power CNN processing, the CNN processor with 1024 MAC units and 8192-bit-wide local distributed memory operates at near threshold voltage, 0.46 V with 5-MHz clock frequency. In addition, the separable filter approximation is adopted for the workload reduction of CNN, and transpose-read SRAM using 7T SRAM cell is proposed to reduce the activity factor of the data read operation. Implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology, the mm2 CIS chip and the mm2 CNN processor consume 0.62 mW to evaluate one face at 1 fps and achieved 97% accuracy in LFW dataset.
Autors: Kyeongryeol Bong;Sungpill Choi;Changhyeon Kim;Donghyeon Han;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 115 - 123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Hybrid-Integrated 40-Gb/s Optical Receiver in Silicon
Abstract:
A low-power hybrid-integrated 40-Gb/s optical receiver is reported. The receiver consists of a broadband photodiode fabricated in a 0.18- Ge-on-SOI process packaged with an mm-wave electronic chip fabricated in a 0.13- SiGe BiCMOS process. The electronic chip consists of a low-noise transimpedance amplifier front-end, a three-stage Cherry–Hooper limiting amplifier, an output driver, and an offset cancellation network. The effect of the bond-wires, as the interface between the photonic and electronic chips, on the overall performance of the receiver is studied. The sensitivity level remains better than −11.0 dBm (bit error rate ) with bond-wire length variation from 300 to 600 enabling a low-cost and reliable packaging solution for such optical receivers. The measured eye diagram has a 100-mVpp single-ended opening at 40 Gb/s. The receiver consumes 77 mW.
Autors: Zhe Xuan;Ran Ding;Yang Liu;Tom Baehr-Jones;Michael Hochberg;Firooz Aflatouni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 589 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Speech Recognizer and Voice Activity Detector Using Deep Neural Networks
Abstract:
This paper describes digital circuit architectures for automatic speech recognition (ASR) and voice activity detection (VAD) with improved accuracy, programmability, and scalability. Our ASR architecture is designed to minimize off-chip memory bandwidth, which is the main driver of system power consumption. A SIMD processor with 32 parallel execution units efficiently evaluates feed-forward deep neural networks (NNs) for ASR, limiting memory usage with a sparse quantized weight matrix format. We argue that VADs should prioritize accuracy over area and power, and introduce a VAD circuit that uses an NN to classify modulation frequency features with 22.3- power consumption. The 65-nm test chip is shown to perform a variety of ASR tasks in real time, with vocabularies ranging from 11 words to 145 000 words and full-chip power consumption ranging from 172 to 7.78 mW.
Autors: Michael Price;James Glass;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 66 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Dual-Polarized High-Isolation MIMO Antenna Arrays for Wideband Base-Station Applications
Abstract:
A low-profile dual-polarized high-isolation multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna array for wideband base-station applications is presented in this paper. The proposed dual-polarized antenna element has the advantage of lower profile () by utilizing artificial magnetic conductor structure. The antenna array consisting of four elements is working within the frequency band from 2.4 to 3 GHz. Furthermore, decoupling branches among the elements are introduced to improve the isolation by about 10 dB. Both simulation and measured results indicate that the proposed dual-polarized antenna element has a good isolation over 28 dB. Moreover, the beamwidth of the antenna array can be effectively broadened by the adjustment of phase distributions of corresponding artificial material plane. Finally, a larger MIMO system is also investigated, and the simulation and measured results prove that dual-polarized dipole antenna MIMO array has good system performance.
Autors: Huiqing Zhai;Lei Xi;Yiping Zang;Long Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 191 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Reflectivity Vacuum Window for Rectangular Hollow Waveguides
Abstract:
The design and performance of a broadband and low-reflectivity millimeter-wave vacuum window for rectangular hollow waveguides are presented. A reflectivity below −15 dB is achieved over almost the full -band. The vacuum window is sufficiently compact, so that two separate channels fit into a single ConFlat CF-35 vacuum flange. The proposed vacuum window utilizes a well-known circuit concept based on two-quadrature hybrid couplers together with two identical vacuum barriers (similar to a balanced amplifier). Due to the dielectric discontinuity at the vacuum barrier, a part of the incident wave is transmitted and another part is reflected. A hybrid lattice network recombines the transmitted signals and reroutes all reflected power to absorbers. The proposed low-reflectivity vacuum window has been fabricated in the WR10 waveguide technology. Broadband branch-guide couplers enable an operational frequency range of 75–105 GHz. Ultrahigh vacuum compatibility is verified by a helium leak rate test, and electrical measurements show good agreement with full-wave simulations.
Autors: Christian Koenen;Gerhard F. Hamberger;Uwe Siart;Thomas F. Eibert;Hans-Ulrich Nickel;Garrard D. Conway;Ulrich Stroth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 128 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mathematical Model of Multispeed Transmissions in Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Gear Shifting
Abstract:
Some studies indicate the potential of multispeed transmissions (MSTs) in improving performance of electric vehicles (EVs), which has led to many developments of MSTs in this context. However, comprehensive dynamics analyses have not been reported yet. For this reason, a mathematical model for MSTs in EVs is being developed, as reported in this paper. This model will be beneficial to support the design and control of EV-oriented MSTs. The transient dynamic response of the transmission is of interest in this study. Therefore, backlash, flexibility, and dissipation of the gear mesh and connecting parts between two planetary gear sets are studied, while taking all these items into account. The system topology variations induced upon gear shifting are given due attention. Simulation results are validated with experiments. The results show that the model can provide a realistic dynamic response of the transmission.
Autors: Yuhanes Dedy Setiawan;Mehdi Roozegar;Ting Zou;Jorge Angeles;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 397 - 408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Measurement Technique for Infrared Emissivity of Epoxy-Based Microwave Absorbing Materials
Abstract:
Infrared (IR) emissivity is a critical parameter for modeling and predicting heat transfer by radiation. Microwave absorbing materials, having a high emissivity in the microwave spectrum, are crucial in a wide array of applications, such as electromagnetic interference mitigation, stealth technology, and microwave remote sensing and radiometer calibration. Accurate knowledge of the thermal properties of these materials is necessary for efficient design and optimization of these types of systems. Typical microwave absorbing materials consist of a dielectric epoxy material impregnated with a lossy material, such as iron or carbon. We study a novel cryogenically compatible epoxy-based absorber material that has been loaded with varying concentrations of carbonyl iron powder (CIP). We study six materials with CIP concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% by tap volume. We use a commercial IR camera with sensitivity in the range 7.5– to measure the radiance of the samples and a waterbath IR blackbody at ten temperatures between about 19 °C and 45 °C. A linear Deming fitting is performed, considering uncertainties in both the measured parameters, and the slope of the linear fit is shown to be the IR emissivity, averaged over the spectral response of the camera. The emissivity ranges between 0.868 and 0.757, decreasing monotonically as a function of iron carbonyl concentration between 0% and 50%. The uncertainty of the emissivity determination method is derived and presented. The uncertainty of the presented method is shown to be no larger than 3.3% for all measured samples.
Autors: Derek A. Houtz;Dazhen Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 48 - 52
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Collecting Single Cell Suspensions Using an Ultrasonic Pump
Abstract:
The presence of cell aggregates in cell suspensions may reduce cell culture efficiency because they can induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation. To avoid this problem, this study proposes a novel method for collecting single cell suspensions from culture chambers for subculture using an ultrasonic pump driven by the squeeze film effect. First, we developed a cell culture device consisting of a cell culture substrate with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the back, so that we can elicit resonance vibration of the substrate. A glass pipe is then placed vertically against the cell culture substrate with a slight gap (corresponding to cell diameter) between the pipe and the substrate. By exciting an out-of-plane resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate, we can collect a cell suspension from the cell culture chamber. Since the gap distance between the glass pipe and the cell culture substrate corresponds to cell diameter, the collected cell suspension only contains single cells. We evaluated the capability of the developed cell suspension pumping system and the proliferation of the collected cells with C2C12 myoblast cells. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension was improved by up to 9.6% compared with that of suspensions collected by the control method (traditional pipetting). Moreover, after cultivating the collected cells for 72 hr, the cells collected by our method proliferated 13.6% more than those collected by the control method. These results suggest that the proposed method has great potential for improving the cultivation efficiency of adhesive cell culture.
Autors: Misa Nakao;Yuta Kurashina;Chikahiro Imashiro;Kenjiro Takemura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 224 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Measuring 3-D Surface Deformations With InSAR Based on Strain Model and Variance Component Estimation
Abstract:
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique is a proven technique for measuring 3-D surface deformations by combining InSAR measurements from different techniques (i.e., differential InSAR, multiaperture InSAR, and pixel offset-tracking) and different tracks (i.e., ascending and descending) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. However, it is difficult to obtain the exact a priori variances or weights for such different kinds of InSAR measurements, resulting in inaccurate estimations of 3-D deformations. This paper proposes a method to retrieve 3-D deformations with InSAR by integrating the strain model and variance component estimation algorithm, which can exploit the spatial correlation of the adjacent points’ deformations and produce accurate weights for multiple InSAR measurements. The proposed method is assessed with both simulated and real data sets. The results have shown that the proposed method can accurately measure 3-D surface deformations associated with geohazards, and even those occurring in a transient or short-term period (e.g., earthquake and volcanic eruption). In the case study of the 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano (Hawai’i), improvements of 51.2%, 22.4%, and 18.5% have been achieved for the derived east, north, and up displacements, respectively, with respect to those derived from the classical weighted least squares method.
Autors: Ji-Hong Liu;Jun Hu;Zhi-Wei Li;Jian-Jun Zhu;Qian Sun;Jie Gan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 239 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method to Evaluate Cycloconverters Commutation Robustness Under Voltage and Frequency Variations in Mining Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the influence of frequency and voltage variation over the commutation of thyristors in high-power cycloconverters. The analysis demonstrates that frequency and voltage variations can cause commutation failures generating significant damages in cycloconverters. In addition, the paper proposes a method based on the energy required to commutate thyristors to determine the maximum frequency and voltage variations that will not affect commutation between thyristors, information that can be later used for the correct setting of protection relays. The analysis is complemented with simulated results using data obtained from high-power thyristors used in commercially available cycloconverters. Finally, a commutation failure in a 15 MW grinding mill cycloconverter drive is presented and analyzed.
Autors: G. Francisco Silva;T. Luis Morán;T. Miguel Torres;V. Christian Weishaupt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 858 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method to Realize Robust Flexible Electronically Tunable Antennas Using Polymer-Embedded Conductive Fabric
Abstract:
A new approach to realize robust, flexible, and electronically tunable wearable antennas is presented. Conductive fabric is used to form the conducting parts of the antenna on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Then the antenna and the lumped (active and passive) elements, required for electronic tuning and RF choking, are fully encapsulated with additional layers of PDMS. As a concept demonstration, a new frequency-reconfigurable antenna has been designed and fabricated. The details of the prototype manufacturing process are described. Two UWB human muscle equivalent phantoms were also fabricated for testing purposes. Furthermore, the antenna was subjected to several investigations on its RF performance (both in free space and on a flat phantom) and mechanical stability. The latter includes bending tests on several locations on a human-body shaped phantom and washing in a household washing machine. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results (both in free space and on the phantom) is observed, validating the proposed concept. The tests demonstrated that lumped components and other antenna parts remained intact and in working order even under extreme bending (to a bending radius of 28 mm) and after washing, thus maintaining the overall antenna performance including good frequency reconfigurability from 2.3 to 2.68 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, all these features have never been demonstrated in previously published electronically tunable antennas.
Autors: Roy B. V. B. Simorangkir;Yang Yang;Karu P. Esselle;Basit A. Zeb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 50 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Methodological Approach to Model-Driven Design and Development of Automation Systems
Abstract:
The growing complexity of industrial automation demands the adoption of software engineering principles for improving the development process of control systems. This paper presents a methodological approach to the design and development of complex automation systems relying on model-driven engineering (MDE). A benefit of this approach is the integration of methods and techniques widespread within the automation discipline with modern MDE techniques guiding the designer through the development phases. A second advantage is to add flexibility enough to adapt the steps to the needs of the system under design. Finally, the architecture presented is prepared to be adapted to methodology extensions to cover other aspects of automation systems. The framework is based on domain models that are defined through the development phases using the terminology of the automation field. Using model transformations both documentation about system analysis and design and the skeleton of software units are automatically generated. A proof-of-concept tool has been developed that has been tested on the design of medium-complexity projects to assess the impact of its use with respect to project documentation and maintenance.

Note to Practitioners—Control software development can be considered one of the challenges in automation field for achieving leadership in the future economic market. This work presents a model-driven engineering-based approach making use of both automation and software engineering methods and techniques for developing automation control systems. The framework implements the methodology for industrial automation systems () for guiding developers through the development phases and generates the analysis and design documentation using domain terminology, the design documentation that involves the minimal units of design, and the pro- ram organization units in one-to-one correspondence with the minimal units of design. From a practical point of view, it should be highly emphasized that developers of automation projects benefit from more structured designs, reduced number of errors, and improved project documentation.

Autors: María Luz Alvarez;Isabel Sarachaga;Arantzazu Burgos;Elisabet Estévez;Marga Marcos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 67 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniaturized Extremely Close-Spaced Four-Element Dual-Band MIMO Antenna System With Polarization and Pattern Diversity
Abstract:
We propose a miniaturized design of a four-element dual-band multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system. The dual-band function is obtained by etching an “L” slot in the radiating patch. The edge-to-edge elements spacing is only 0.023λ0. A decoupling structure consisting of cross-shaped metal strips shorted to the ground plane using vias is first introduced. Then, metalized walls are used to enhance the isolation level by realizing the pattern diversity. The measured resonant frequencies are centered at 3.5 and 5.7 GHz with bandwidths of 58 and 43 MHz, peak gains of 2.7 and 2.85 dBi, and peak efficiencies of 63% and 65%, respectively. A considerable measured mutual coupling reduction of 10.8 dB in the lower band and 15.6 dB in the upper band is realized. The overall size of the design is 0.41λ0 × 0.41λ0 × 0.04λ0 with minimum isolation levels of 18.4 and 22.7 dB in the lower and upper bands, respectively. The envelope correlation coefficient is lower than 0.08 across both operating bandwidths. The measured results validate the good diversity performance of the MIMO system.
Autors: Abdelheq Boukarkar;Xian Qi Lin;Yuan Jiang;Li Ying Nie;Peng Mei;Yi Qiang Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 134 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Frequency Domain Condition for the Physical Realizability of Linear Quantum Stochastic Systems
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with a modified version of the frequency domain physical realizability (PR) condition for linear quantum systems. We consider open quantum systems whose dynamic variables satisfy the canonical commutation relations of an open quantum harmonic oscillator and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs). In order to correspond to physical quantum systems, these QSDEs must satisfy PR conditions. We provide a relatively simple proof that the PR condition is equivalent to the frequency domain -unitarity of the input–output transfer function and orthogonality of the feedthrough matrix of the system without the technical spectral assumptions required in previous work. We also show that the poles and transmission zeros associated with the transfer function of PR linear quantum systems are the mirror reflections of each other about the imaginary axis. An example is provided to illustrate the results.
Autors: Arash Kh. Sichani;Ian R. Petersen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 277 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified S-Transform and Random Forests-Based Power Quality Assessment Framework
Abstract:
The proposed work aims at the accurate detection and classification of various single and multiple power quality (PQ) disturbances. To this end, a modified optimal fast discrete Stockwell transform (ST) with random forests (RF) classifier-based PQ detection framework has been proposed in this paper. In modified ST, a single signal-dependent window is introduced, with optimally selected window parameters via energy concentration maximization based constraint optimization. As a result of which accurate time-frequency localization of various PQ events is achieved, with sharper energy concentration. In classification stage, the proposed PQ framework utilizes the RF-based classifier, which follows the bagging approach by random selection of features and data points, at each node, to train the classifier. Decision stumps are used as weak classifiers, and using a simple majority voting of these decision stumps, RF builds a strong classifier. The RF gives less variance and less bias estimation due to injection of randomness into the training phase, and its performance is found to be reasonably immune to input parameter selection. As a result of this, the classification results of the proposed PQ framework are found to be very accurate and quite insensitive to the presence of noise in the data. Various test cases are presented in this paper to clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme. The proposed approach has also been tested on real field data and very promising results have been obtained.
Autors: Motakatla Venkateswara Reddy;Ranjana Sodhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 78 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Monolithically Integrated Large-Scale Optical Phased Array in Silicon-on-Insulator CMOS
Abstract:
A large-scale monolithic silicon nanophotonic phased array on a chip creates and dynamically steers a high-resolution optical beam in free space, enabling emerging applications in sensing, imaging, and communication. The scalable architecture leverages sub-array structure, mitigating the impact of process variation on the phased array performance. In addition, sharing control electronics among multiple optical modulators in the scalable architecture reduces the number of digital-to-analog converters (DACs) required for an array from to , allowing a small silicon footprint. An optical phased array for 1550-nm wavelength with 1024 uniformly spaced optical grating antennas, 1192 optical variable phase shifters, and 168 optical variable attenuators is integrated into a 5.7 mm 6.4 mm chip in a commercial 180-nm silicon-on-insulator RF CMOS technology. The control signals for the optical variable phase shifters and attenuators are provided by 136 DACs with 14-bit nonuniform resolution using 2.5-V input-output transistors. The implemented phased array can create 0.03° narrow optical beams that can be steered unambiguously within ±22.5°.
Autors: SungWon Chung;Hooman Abediasl;Hossein Hashemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 275 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Motion Planning Strategy for the Active Vision-Based Mapping of Ground-Level Structures
Abstract:
This paper presents a strategy to guide a mobile ground robot equipped with a camera or depth sensor, in order to autonomously map the visible part of a bounded 3-D structure. We describe motion planning algorithms that determine appropriate successive viewpoints and attempt to fill holes automatically in a point cloud produced by the sensing and perception layer. The emphasis is on accurately reconstructing a 3-D model of a structure of moderate size rather than mapping large open environments, with applications for example in architecture, construction, and inspection. The proposed algorithms do not require any initialization in the form of a mesh model or a bounding box, and the paths generated are well adapted to situations where the vision sensor is used simultaneously for mapping and for localizing the robot, in the absence of additional absolute positioning system. We analyze the coverage properties of our policy, and compare its performance with the classic frontier-based exploration algorithm. We illustrate its efficacy for different structure sizes, levels of localization accuracy, and range of the depth sensor, and validate our design on a real-world experiment. Note to Practitioners—The objective of this paper is to automate the process of building a 3-D model of a structure of interest that is as complete as possible, using a mobile camera or depth sensor, in the absence of any prior information about this structure. Given that increasingly robust solutions for the visual simultaneous localization and mapping problem are now readily available, the key challenge that we address here is to develop motion planning policies to control the trajectory of the sensor in a way that improves the mapping performance. We target in particular scenarios where no external absolute positioning system is available, such as mapping certain indoor environments where GPS signals are blocked. In this case, it is often important to revisi- previously seen locations relatively quickly, in order to avoid excessive drift in the dead-reckoning localization system. Our system works by first determining the boundaries of the structure, before attempting to fill the holes in the constructed model. Its performance is illustrated through simulations, and a real-world experiment performed with a depth sensor carried by a mobile manipulator.
Autors: Manikandasriram Srinivasan Ramanagopal;André Phu-Van Nguyen;Jerome Le Ny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 356 - 368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Chain Merged Tapped Delay Line for High Precision Time-to-Digital Converters in FPGAs
Abstract:
Field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converters (TDCs) use a tapped delay line (TDL) for time interpolation to yield a sub-clock time resolution. The granularity and uniformity of delay cells in TDL determines achievable TDC time precision. To gain small delay cells in TDL, we propose a new TDL architecture by merging multiple conventional delay chains to obtain very fine intrinsic cell delays. The uniformity of these cell delays is improved by a bin decimation method so that the time interpolation with the TDL has minimum nonlinearity error. To evaluate the performance improvement using the new TDL architecture, two identical TDC channels with 1-chain, 2-chain, and 4-chain merged TDLs, respectively, were implemented in a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA. For time-intervals in the range from 0 to 50 ns, the average RMS precisions of these TDC pairs were measured as 8.5 ps, 5.3 ps, and 4.3 ps, respectively. The test results confirm that the proposed TDL architecture is an FPGA-independent effective method for boosting TDC precision without significant increase in hardware complexity and logic resource consumption.
Autors: Yonggang Wang;Qiang Cao;Chong Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 96 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Class Tactile Brain–Computer Interface Based on Stimulus-Induced Oscillatory Dynamics
Abstract:
We proposed a multi-class tactile brain–computer interface that utilizes stimulus-induced oscillatory dynamics. It was hypothesized that somatosensory attention can modulate tactile-induced oscillation changes, which can decode different sensation attention tasks. Subjects performed four tactile attention tasks, prompted by cues presented in random order and while both wrists were simultaneously stimulated: 1) selective sensation on left hand (SS-L); 2) selective sensation on right hand (SS-R); 3) bilateral selective sensation; and 4) selective sensation suppressed or idle state (SS-S). The classification accuracy between SS-L and SS-R (79.9 ± 8.7%) was comparable with that of a previous tactile BCI system based on selective sensation. Moreover, the accuracy could be improved to an average of 90.3 ± 4.9% by optimal class-pair and frequency-band selection. Three-class discrimination had an accuracy of 75.2 ± 8.3%, with the best discrimination reached for the classes SS-L, SS-R, and SS-S. Finally, four classes were classified with an accuracy of 59.4 ± 7.3%. These results show that the proposed system is a promising new paradigm for multi-class BCI.
Autors: Lin Yao;Mei Lin Chen;Xinjun Sheng;Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting;Xiangyang Zhu;Dario Farina;Ning Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 3 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Level Cache Framework for Remote Resource Access in Transparent Computing
Abstract:
With the increasing demand for high performance of remote resource access in transparent computing, there is a requirement to design a multi-level cache framework to alleviate the network latency. Existing cache frameworks in CPU and web systems cannot be applied simply because the remote resource access architecture needs to be extended to support multi-level cache, and the ways that resources are accessed in transparent computing require specific designs. In this article, we propose a multi-level cache framework for remote resource access in transparent computing. Based on the low latency feature of edge computing, we extend the remote resource access architecture to an architecture with multi-level caches by setting caches on the edge devices with low network latency. Then we design a hybrid multi-level cache hierarchy and make corresponding cache policies. Through a case study, we show the effectiveness of our design. Finally, we discuss several future research issues for deploying the proposed multi-level cache framework.
Autors: Di Zhang;Yuezhi Zhou;Yaoxue Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 140 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multicommodity Flow-Based Detailed Router With Efficient Acceleration Techniques
Abstract:
Detailed routing is an important stage in very large scale integrated physical design. Due to the extreme scaling of transistor feature size and the complicated design rules, ensuring routing completion without design rule checking (DRC) violations becomes more and more difficult. Studies have shown that the low routing quality partly results from nonoptimal net-ordering nature of traditional sequential methods. The concurrent routing strategy is always based on an NP-hard model, thus is at a disadvantage in runtime. In this paper, we present a novel concurrent detailed routing algorithm that routes all nets simultaneously. Based on the multicommodity flow model, detailed routing problem with complex design rule constraints is formulated as an integer linear programming. Some model simplification heuristics and efficient model solving algorithms are proposed to improve the runtime. Experimental results show that, the proposed algorithms can reduce the DRC violations by 80%, meanwhile can reduce wirelength and via count by 5% and 8% compared with an industry tool. In addition, the proposed algorithm is general that it can be adopted as an incremental detailed router to refine a routing solution, so the number of DRC violations that industry tool cannot fix are further reduced by 27%.
Autors: Xiaotao Jia;Yici Cai;Qiang Zhou;Bei Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 217 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multistandard Method of Network Analyzer Self-Calibration—Generalization of Multiline TRL
Abstract:
This paper presents a statistical self-calibration procedure for two-port vector network analyzers (VNAs). It is a generalization of the Multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method and allows to combine the information of multiple A-standards, which can be realized by any matched networks. Moreover, the reflect standard is replaced by a more general network standard as a symmetrical network that may have nonzero transmission. In consequence, this method offers more flexibility in the choice of calibration standards and an extended bandwidth especially toward lower frequencies. At the same time, the improved accuracy over conventional methods persists, as well as the simple implementation, avoiding iterative solutions. The presented error analysis yields some new insights on the choice of calibration standards. In addition, a method is provided to modify the performed weighting of the information of different standards.
Autors: Bernd Hofmann;Stephan Kolb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 245 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nano-Watt MOS-Only Voltage Reference With High-Slope PTAT Voltage Generators
Abstract:
This brief presents an MOS-only voltage reference circuit with high-slope proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltage generators for ultra-low-power applications. Biased by a nano-ampere current reference circuit, the PTAT voltage generator is realized by an asymmetrical differential cell with two additional cross-coupled nMOS/pMOS pairs, which enhance the slope of the PTAT voltage remarkably. As a result, only two cascaded PTAT stages are used to compensate the complementary-to-absolute-temperature voltage generated directly by a diode-connected nMOS in the current reference circuit. Therefore, much power and chip area can be saved. A trimming circuit is also adopted to compensate the process-related reference voltage variations. The experimental results of the proposed reference circuit fabricated in a 0.18- m standard CMOS process demonstrate that the circuit could operate under a minimum supply voltage of 1 V, and generate a reference voltage of 756 mV with temperature coefficient of 74 and 49.6 ppm/°C under 1-V and 1.8-V power supply, respectively. The proposed circuit consumes only 23 nA under a 1-V power supply, and the active area is only 95 .
Autors: Hong Zhang;Xipeng Liu;Jie Zhang;Hongshuai Zhang;Jijun Li;Ruizhi Zhang;Shuai Chen;Anthony Chan Carusone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Amplification Regime for Traveling Wave Tubes With Third-Order Modal Degeneracy
Abstract:
Engineering of the eigenmode dispersion of slow wave structures (SWSs) to achieve desired modal characteristics is an effective approach to enhance the performance of high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers or oscillators. We investigate here for the first time a new synchronization regime in TWTs based on SWSs operating near a third-order degeneracy condition in their dispersion. This special three-eigenmode synchronization is associated with a stationary inflection point (SIP) that is manifested by the coalescence of three Floquet-Bloch eigenmodes in the SWS. We demonstrate the special features of “cold” (without electron beam) periodic SWSs with SIP modeled as coupled transmission lines and investigate resonances of SWSs of finite length. We also show that by tuning parameters of a periodic SWS, one can achieve an SIP with nearly ideal flat dispersion relationship with zero group velocity or a slightly slanted one with a very small (positive or negative) group velocity leading to different operating schemes. The SIP structure when synchronized with an electron beam has potential benefits for amplification which include: 1) gain enhancement; 2) gain-bandwidth product improvement; and 3) higher power efficiency, when compared to conventional Pierce-like TWTs. The proposed theory paves the way for a new approach for potential improvements in gain, power efficiency, and gain-bandwidth product in high-power microwave amplifiers.
Autors: Farshad Yazdi;Mohamed A. K. Othman;Mehdi Veysi;Alexander Figotin;Filippo Capolino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 43 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach to Track Multiple Vehicles With the Combination of Robust Detection and Two Classifiers
Abstract:
It plays an important role to accurately track multiple vehicles in intelligent transportation, especially in intelligent vehicles. Due to complicated traffic environments it is difficult to track multiple vehicles accurately and robustly, especially when there are occlusions among vehicles. To alleviate these problems, a new approach is proposed to track multiple vehicles with the combination of robust detection and two classifiers. An improved ViBe algorithm is proposed for robust and accurate detection of multiple vehicles. It uses the gray-scale spatial information to build dictionary of pixel life length to make ghost shadows and object’s residual shadows quickly blended into the samples of the background. The improved algorithm takes good post-processing method to restrain dynamic noise. In this paper, we also design a method using two classifiers to further attack the problem of failure to track vehicles with occlusions and interference. It classifies tracking rectangles with confidence values between two thresholds through combining local binary pattern with support vector machine (SVM) classifier and then using a convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for the second time to remove the interference areas between vehicles and other moving objects. The two classifiers method has both time efficiency advantage of SVM and high accuracy advantage of CNN. Comparing with several existing methods, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of our experiment results showed that the proposed method not only effectively removed the ghost shadows, and improved the detection accuracy and real-time performance, but also was robust to deal with the occlusion of multiple vehicles in various traffic scenes.
Autors: Weidong Min;Mengdan Fan;Xiaoguang Guo;Qing Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 174 - 186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine
Abstract:
This paper presents a new axial flux permanent magnet machine, named ring winding axial flux machine (AFM). The ring winding AFM (RWAFM) takes the advantage of segmented stator of yokeless and segmented armature topology with those of decoupled phases and ring winding of transverse flux topology. In this paper, the geometry of the RWAFM is introduced in detail. Furthermore, the working principle and torque production theory are discussed. To validate the concept and confirm manufacturability of the proposed topology, a prototype is fabricated. The performance of the RWAFM is studied through experimental tests, 3-D finite-element simulations, and analytical discussions.
Autors: Pourya Ojaghlu;Aboalfazl Vahedi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Heuristic for $N$ -Dimensional Nearest Neighbor Realization of a Quantum Circuit
Abstract:
One of the main challenges in quantum computing is to ensure error-free operation of the basic quantum gates. There are various implementation technologies of quantum gates for which the distance between interacting qubits must be kept within a limit for reliable operation. This leads to the so-called requirement of neighborhood arrangements of the interacting qubits, often referred to as nearest neighbor (NN) constraint. This is typically achieved by inserting SWAP gates in the quantum circuits, where a SWAP gate between two qubits exchanges their states. Minimizing the number of SWAP gates to provide NN compliance is an important problem to solve. A number of approaches have been proposed in this regard, based on local and global ordering techniques. In this paper, a generalized approach for combined local and global ordering of qubits have been proposed that is based on an improved heuristic for cost estimation and is also scalable. The approach can be extended to -dimensional arrangement of qubits, for any arbitrary values of . Practical constraints, however, restrict the maximum value of to 3. Extensive experiments on benchmark functions have been carried out to evaluate the performance in terms of SWAP gate requirements. 3-D organization of qubits shows average reductions of 6.7% and 37.4%, respectively, in the number of SWAP gates over 2-D and 1-D organizations. Also compared to the best 2-D and 1-D results reported in the literature, on the average 8.7% and 8.4% reductions, respectively, are observed.
Autors: Abhoy Kole;Kamalika Datta;Indranil Sengupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 182 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Iron Loss Model for Temperature Dependencies of Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses in Electrical Machines
Abstract:
In this paper, the different temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses of non-oriented Si-steel laminations are investigated. The measured iron loss results show that both the hysteresis and eddy current losses vary linearly with temperature between 40 °C to 100 °C, a typical temperature range of electrical machines. Varying rates of hysteresis and eddy current losses with the temperature are different and fluctuate with flux density and frequency. Based on this, an improved iron loss model which can consider temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses separately is developed. Based on the improved iron loss model, the temperature influence on the iron loss can be fully considered by measuring iron losses at only two different temperatures. The investigation is experimentally validated by both the tests based on a ring specimen and an electrical machine.
Autors: Shaoshen Xue;Jianghua Feng;Shuying Guo;Jun Peng;W. Q. Chu;Z. Q. Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New LDPC Coded Scheme for Two-User Gaussian Multiple Access Channels
Abstract:
We propose a new low-density parity-check coded scheme for two-user Gaussian multiple access channels (GMACs) with equal rate and equal average power constraints. In the proposed scheme, we divide a code word into two parts with equal length and transmit them by using BPSK signals with two power levels. Two users use the two power levels alternatively to avoid ambiguity problem in two-user GMACs. We optimize the ratio between the two power levels to minimize the required average signal-to-noise ratio for a given rate. We also design a joint decoding algorithm for our proposed scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme has a better bit error rate performance, compared with the existing schemes.
Autors: Junyi Du;Liang Zhou;Lei Yang;Shenglong Peng;Jinhong Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 21 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Multi-Edge Metric-Constrained PEG Algorithm for Designing Binary LDPC Code With Improved Cycle-Structure
Abstract:
The progressive edge-growth (PEG) algorithm constructs an edge in each stage to maximize the variable node (VN) of interest’s local girth in real time. Thus, this VN’s local girths, after more than one edge is added to the current tanner graph (TG) setting, may not be maximized relative to that TG setting. To address this problem, we define the multi-edge local girth and edge-trial, and based on these definitions, propose a new multi-edge metric-constrained PEG algorithm (MM-PEGA) to improve the design at each VN. The MM-PEGA constructs an edge in each stage that, relative to the current TG setting, can potentially maximize the VN of interest’s local girth after a certain number (up to the edge-trial) of edges are added to the TG setting. We first analyze the properties of the multi-edge local girth, and then propose an algorithm for calculating the multi-edge local girth. We also propose a method for accelerating the MM-PEGA. Moreover, we generalize the MM-PEGA for improving different PEG-like designs. According to the theoretical analysis, increasing the edge-trial of the MM-PEGA is expected to positively affect the cycle-structure and the error performance of resulting low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. This expectation is verified by simulations.
Autors: Xuan He;Liang Zhou;Junyi Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 14 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Phenomenon in Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches
Abstract:
A new oscillational phenomenon has been found in high-biased semi-insulating (SI) 4H-SiC photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) with high densities of vanadium and nitrogen dopants, and this oscillational phenomenon has no relationship with the laser wavelength, bias voltage, the charge capacitor, and the shape/size of the 4H-SiC PCSS. This paper shows that the photo activated charge domain theory in SI GaAs PCSS may explain this phenomenon. Due to the high densities of vanadium and nitrogen dopants, the intervalley scattering may occur in the 4H-SiC PCSS, and the space charge field region will appear in the 4H-SiC PCSS for the electrons accumulation. This region looks upon an equivalent capacitor, when the accumulation of the electrons is over, the equivalent capacitor will discharge, and the oscillational phenomenon appears.
Autors: Chongbiao Luan;Boting Li;Juan Zhao;Jinshui Xiao;Xun Ma;Hongtao Li;Yupeng Huang;Longfei Xiao;Xiangang Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 172 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Pseudo Load Profile Determination Approach in Low Voltage Distribution Networks
Abstract:
Low voltage (LV) state estimation in distribution networks mainly relies on pseudo measurements because the real-time monitoring is impossible for all customers. This paper presents a new method to determine the pseudo load profiles (PLPs) of customers with small consumptions connected to the LV distribution networks. This method is comprised of two stages. First, a new frequency-based clustering algorithm is proposed to extract the essential load patterns of limited number of customers who are equipped by smart meters and are called as sample customers. The superior performance of the proposed clustering algorithm is also shown in comparison with three of the most widely used clustering methods: k-means, self-organizing maps and hierarchical algorithms. In the second stage, a new approach is proposed to estimate the daily energy consumptions two weeks ahead for other customers who are not equipped by smart meters by using their previous billing cycle energy consumptions and the load data of sample customers. The PLP of a customer is obtained by multiplying the estimated daily energy consumption by the corresponding normalized load pattern. Studies have been conducted on the data of a real distribution system to verify the proposed method and to show its application for the PLP estimation of distribution networks.
Autors: Yaser Raeisi Gahrooei;Amin Khodabakhshian;Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 463 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New ZVS Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter for Battery Charging With Reduced Losses Over Full-Load Range
Abstract:
A new zero-voltage switching full-bridge dc–dc converter for battery charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed isolated dc–dc converter is used for the dc–dc conversion stage of the electric vehicle charger. The primary switches in dc–dc converter turn-on at zero voltage over the battery-charging range with the help of passive auxiliary circuit. The diode clamping circuit on the primary side minimizes the severity of voltage spikes across the secondary rectifier diodes, which are commonly present in conventional full-bridge dc–dc converters. The main switches are controlled with an asymmetrical pulse-width modulation (APWM) technique resulting in higher efficiency. APWM reduces the current stress of the main switches and the circulating losses compared with the conventional phase-shift modulation method by controlling the auxiliary inductor current over the entire operating range of the proposed converter. The steady-state analysis of auxiliary circuit and its design considerations are discussed in detail. A 100-kHz 1.2-kW full-bridge dc–dc converter prototype is developed. The experimental results are presented to validate the analysis and efficiency of the proposed converter.
Autors: Venkata Ravi Kishore Kanamarlapudi;Benfei Wang;Nandha Kumar Kandasamy;Ping Lam So;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 571 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nitrided Interfacial Oxide for Interface State Improvement in Hafnium Zirconium Oxide-Based Ferroelectric Transistor Technology
Abstract:
We examine the nature of the interface states induced during the integration of ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide on silicon. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-silicon capacitors, with a thin layer of hafnium zirconium oxide grown by atomic layer deposition as the ferroelectric and various interfacial oxide layers as the insulator, are investigated. Since a high-temperature post-annealing is necessary to induce the formation of the ferroelectric phase in this oxide stack, the integrity of the oxide/silicon interface must be preserved after high-temperature processing. As such, we show that a nitrided interlayer provides an improved midgap interface state density among all interfacial oxides investigated. Furthermore, we quantify the interface states using the ac conductance technique and model the interface trap distribution across the silicon bandgap in order to explain and verify the experimental measurements.
Autors: Ava J. Tan;Ajay K. Yadav;Korok Chatterjee;Daewoong Kwon;Sangwan Kim;Chenming Hu;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 95 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise Reconfigurable All-Digital Phase-Locked Loop Using a Switched Capacitor-Based Frequency-Locked Loop and a Noise Detector
Abstract:
Programmability is one of the most significant advantages of a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) compared with a charge-pump PLL. In this paper, a digital PLL that extends programmability to include noise is introduced. A digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) using a switched capacitor for frequency feedback is proposed to maintain a constant figure of merit while reconfiguring its noise performance. The proposed DCO offers an accurate and linear frequency tuning curve that is insensitive to environmental changes. A noise detection circuit using the statistical property of a bang-bang phase and frequency detector is proposed to autonomously adjust the output noise level depending on the noise specification. A prototype design is fabricated in a 28-nm FDSOI process. The integrated phase noise of the proposed PLL can be configured from 2.5 to 15 ps, while the power consumption ranges from 1.7 to 5 mW.
Autors: Taekwang Jang;Seokhyeon Jeong;Dongsuk Jeon;Kyojin David Choo;Dennis Sylvester;David Blaauw;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 50 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise-Shaped Randomized Modulation for Switched-Mode DC-DC Converters
Abstract:
We propose a novel low-harmonics low-noise modulation scheme for switched-mode dc–dc converters. The proposed scheme is a hybrid of a randomized modulation scheme, namely, the randomized wrapped-around pulse position modulation scheme (RWAPPM), and a noise-shaper. The RWAPPM mitigates the switching-frequency harmonics in the input current, whereas the noise-shaper mitigates the low-frequency noise therein. We derive an analytical expression for the input current spectrum of the hybrid scheme. We benchmark the hybrid scheme against the conventional pulse width modulation scheme (PWM) and the RWAPPM without the noise-shaper. At 0.5 duty cycle, 3.3-V input voltage, 100-kHz average switching frequency, and with the second-order noise-shaper, the peak spectral power in the input current spectrum of the hybrid scheme is 18.1 dB lower than the PWM. Other randomized and spread-spectrum modulation schemes, in general, have undesirably higher input noise current than that of the PWM. However, the input noise current of the proposed hybrid scheme, obtained at ~73-mA rms (integrated over a 200-kHz bandwidth without an input filter), is comparable with that of the PWM, and is lower by ~16-mA rms compared with that of the RWAPPM without the noise-shaper. We also benchmark the hybrid scheme against other well known randomized and spread-spectrum modulation schemes. We further propose a novel pulse generator structure that embodies the hybrid scheme. We realize a dc–dc converter employing the pulse generator, and measure the converter to verify the derived expression and the characteristics of the hybrid scheme. We also measure the output voltage spectrum, the transient-response, and the operating range of the converter.
Autors: Keer Cui;Victor Adrian;Bah-Hwee Gwee;Joseph S. Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 394 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise-Tolerant Algorithm for Robot-Sensor Calibration Using a Planar Disk of Arbitrary 3-D Orientation
Abstract:
In a 3-D scanning task, a robot-sensor system controls a robotic arm to move a laser sensor. In order to align the coordinate system of the robotic arm and laser sensor, prior calibration is required to derive the transformation between both coordinate systems. This paper proposes a new calibration method in three steps: manual data collection, sensing data calculation, and transformation solution. First, at least four data are required to be collected by the user. The sensing data are then calculated from the collected data and adopted to provide the desired transformation. The proposed algorithm has two features: arbitrary placement of planar disk and noise tolerant. Using a planar disk, the algorithm will automatically derive the angular relationship between the disk and the sensor plane, enabling arbitrary orientation placement. Noise tolerant is guaranteed by fitting ellipses during the sensing data calculation and using a single set of sensing data in transformation solution. Experiments and comparisons are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed calibration algorithm.

Note to Practitioners—This paper was motivated by the problem of calibrating a laser sensor and a positioning device (robot arm, CMM, etc.) in a robust and fast manner. Specifically, the calibration is to derive the transformation by aligning the sensors coordinate system to the positioning devices coordinate system. The proposed calibration procedure consists of two parts: manual data collection and automatic transformation calculation. During manual data collection, users only need to select four different data; whereby each data contains of two positions with the same orientation. Then, the desired transformation will be derived automatically. The calibration is designed in an efficient and robust way whereby: 1) data collection is done using a simple planar disk placed in arbitrary orientations; 2) minimum human i- teraction required; 3) tolerant to noise in the sensor data; and 4) easy implementation by following a proven and standard protocol.

Autors: Wenyu Chen;Jia Du;Wei Xiong;Yue Wang;Shueching Chia;Bingbing Liu;Jierong Cheng;Ying Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 251 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 1-D Convolution Neural Network With SVM Architecture for Real-Time Detection Applications
Abstract:
To enhance the performance and sensitivity of continuous monitoring systems for detection of chronic diseases, selection of optimal machine learning algorithms is pivotal. Presently, the commonly used algorithms face constraints, such as high computational cost and lack of optimal feature selection on application to real time signals thereby reducing the efficiency of such analysis. Deep learning approaches, such as the convolution neural network, overcome these drawbacks by calculating automated features from raw signal and classifying the derived features. This architecture shows good merits. However, the use of fully connected multi-layer perceptron algorithms have shown low classification performance. This paper proposes to develop a modified deep learning convolution neural network algorithm integrated with support vector machines to address the drawbacks present in multi-layer perceptron and thereby improving the overall performance of real-time detection applications. The system is validated on real-time breath signals for non-invasive detection of diabetes. The performance of this proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with the existing technique.
Autors: S. Lekha;M. Suchetha;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 724 - 731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 2.6–6.4 GHz Highly Integrated Broadband GaN Power Amplifier
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel methodology to achieve output broadband matching is proposed. Based on this methodology, a broadband gallium nitride power amplifier (PA) with input matching and stabilization circuit integrated on-chip is designed. The implemented PA achieves a maximum drain efficiency of 62%–79.2% from 2.6 to 6.4 GHz (84.4% fractional bandwidth), with a saturated output power (Psat) of 34.3–35.8 dBm, while providing a gain larger than 10 dB. When tested with 802.11ac VHT80 MC9 (80 MHz, 256-QAM) with 11.3-dB peak-to-average power ratio, PA achieves a drain efficiency of 22.1%–25.2% with an average output power of 23–25.4 dBm across the whole band, while meeting the standard specification of error vector magnitude below −32 dB.
Autors: Bei Liu;Mengda Mao;Devrishi Khanna;Chirn-Chye Boon;Pilsoon Choi;Eugene A. Fitzgerald;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 37 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 28 GHz Beam Steering Array for 5G Mobile Device With Metallic Casing Application
Abstract:
The design of a novel practical 28 GHz beam steering phased array antenna for future fifth generation mobile device applications is presented in this communication. The proposed array antenna has 16 cavity-backed slot antenna elements that are implemented via the metallic back casing of the mobile device, in which two eight-element phased arrays are built on the left- and right-side edges of the mobile device. Each eight-element phased array can yield beam steering at broadside and gain of >15 dBi can be achieved at boresight. The measured 10 dB return loss bandwidth of the proposed cavity-backed slot antenna element was approximately 27.5–30 GHz. In addition, the impacts of user’s hand effects are also investigated.
Autors: Bin Yu;Kang Yang;Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim;Guangli Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 462 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 3-D Massive MIMO Channel Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Environments
Abstract:
This paper presents 3-D vehicle massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array model for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication environments. A spherical wavefront is assumed in the proposed model instead of the plane wavefront assumption used in the conventional MIMO channel model. Using the proposed V2V channel model, we first derive the closed-form expressions for the joint and marginal probability density functions of the angle of departure at the transmitter and angle of arrival at the receiver in the azimuth and elevation planes. We additionally analyze the time and frequency cross-correlation functions for different propagation paths. In the proposed model, we derive the expression of the Doppler spectrum due to the relative motion between the mobile transmitter and mobile receiver. The results show that the proposed 3-D channel model is in close agreement with previously reported results, thereby validating the generalization of the proposed model.
Autors: Hao Jiang;Zaichen Zhang;Jian Dang;Liang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 79 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach for Spectroscopic Chemical Identification Using Photonic Crystal Fiber in the Terahertz Regime
Abstract:
A novel highly sensitive porous core-photonic crystal fiber (PC-PCF) has been designed and analyzed for detection of chemical analytes in the terahertz frequency range. The PC-PCF is designed using rectangular structured air holes in the core with a kagome structured cladding. The full vectorial finite-element method is used to tune the geometrical parameters and to characterize the fiber. Our results demonstrate a high relative chemical sensitivity with significantly lower confinement loss for different analytes. Moreover, the PCF shows near zero dispersion variation, high modal effective area, high birefringence, and high numerical aperture. The practical realization of the fiber is feasible with present fabrication techniques. Our optimized PCF has commercial applications in chemical sensing as well as applications in terahertz systems that require guided polarization preserving transmission.
Autors: Md. Saiful Islam;Jakeya Sultana;Kawsar Ahmed;Mohammad Rakibul Islam;Alex Dinovitser;Brian Wai-Him Ng;Derek Abbott;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 575 - 582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach of Fuzzy Dempster–Shafer Theory for Spatial Uncertainty Analysis and Accuracy Assessment of Object-Based Image Classification
Abstract:
Accuracy assessment is a fundamental step in remote-sensing image processing. The accuracy assessment techniques aim to compute classification accuracy and characterize errors, and can, thus, be used to refine the classification or estimates derived from the assessment itself. With regard to their technical capabilities, these techniques have been criticized for their inherent uncertainty and inability to evaluate image classification accuracies. To overcome this issue, the main objective of this letter was to introduce a new approach for the accuracy assessment of object-based image analysis (OBIA). To this end, an integrated approach of fuzzy synthetic evaluation and Dempster–Shafer theory (FSE-DST) was adapted and proposed as an effective approach for object-based image classification accuracy assessment. Two experiments were established to examine the capability of the proposed approach. OBIA was applied to develop a land-use land-cover map of Ahar city and the Ousko area. The proposed FSE-DST was applied for a spatially explicit accuracy assessment. Results indicate that FSE-DST can be effectively applied in spatial accuracy assessments for OBIA and for spatial accuracy assessments in remote-sensing-based classifications. The results of this letter are important to the development of OBIA and can serve as the basis for progressive research in remote sensing by supporting future researchers in obtaining more accurate results from OBIA-based classifications and spatially analyzing the reliability of results.
Autors: Bakhtiar Feizizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 18 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Improve the Performance of Charge Plasma Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor
Abstract:
A distinct approach is presented for realizing charge plasma tunnel field-effect transistor (CP TFET) wherein p+ substrate is taken as silicon film and then metal electrodes with specific work functions are deposited over the silicon film to accumulate n+ drain and intrinsic channel regions. This creates abruptness and reduces the barrier at the source/channel interface of CP TFET, which improves the dc characteristics of the device. Furthermore, the drain electrode is separated into two sections and applied with dual work function, which reduces the ambipolar behavior, parasitic capacitance, and enhances radio frequency parameters. The crux of the script is to advance the performance of the device while maintaining the classical CMOS fabrication flow with its inherent advantages by using p+ substrate initially. To analyze the performance, a comparison between conventional CP TFET and dual drain electrode CP TFET (proposed) is shown at the simulation level. Optimization of length and workfunction of the section of drain electrode adjacent to the channel is demonstrated to assess the desired ON-current and ambipolarity of the device. Furthermore, the device performance is examined with the application of multigate work function and heterogate dielectric engineering to achieve more improvements in device performance.
Autors: Sukeshni Tirkey;Dheeraj Sharma;Bhagwan Ram Raad;Dharmendra Singh Yadav;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 282 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Coupling Algorithm for Perfectly Matched Layer With Wave Equation-Based Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Method
Abstract:
The second-order wave equation-based discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) methods typically employ the first-order absorbing boundary condition for modeling open problems. To improve the modeling accuracy, this paper proposes a novel coupling algorithm of the well-posed perfectly matched layer (PML) for wave equation-based DGTD methods. Based on the domain decomposition technique, the proposed coupling algorithm divides the computational domain into two regions, that is, the physical and PML regions, whose meshes can be nonconformal with each other. Instead of introducing time convolution terms, the new coupling scheme is implemented through employing different DGTD frameworks for the two regions. Specifically, the physical region employs the wave equation-based DGTD framework, while the PML region employs the first-order Maxwell’s curl equations-based DGTD framework. To facilitate modeling of electrically small problems, the implicit Newmark-beta time integration is used for the physical region. To conveniently couple with the physical region, the implicit Crank–Nicolson algorithm is used for the PML region. Numerical results are shown to examine the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed coupling algorithm for modeling electrically small problems.
Autors: Qingtao Sun;Runren Zhang;Qiwei Zhan;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 255 - 261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Design of Dual-Band Rat-Race Coupler With Reconfigurable Power-Dividing Ratio
Abstract:
This letter presents, for the first time, the design of a reconfigurable rat-race coupler with dual-band operation. This device can offer power-dividing ratio of or at two different frequency bands. The proposed design also features low insertion loss, high port isolation, compact size, single control voltage, and minimal number of RF switches. For demonstration, both simulation and measured results of a 0.9-/2-GHz reconfigurable rat-race coupler implemented on microstrip are given.
Autors: Li-Peng Cai;Kwok-Keung M. Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 16 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Extended State Observer for Output Tracking of MIMO Systems With Mismatched Uncertainty
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a novel extended state observer (ESO), in terms of tracking error only, for output tracking of a class of multi-input multioutput systems with mismatched uncertainty. A novel ESO is constructed from the nonsmooth function “ ” to estimate both uncertainty and state of the system. An ESO-based output feedback controller is then designed to compensate (cancel) the uncertainty and to achieve the output tracking. The convergence of the closed-loop system is proved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical results of trajectory tracking for a practical autonomous underwater vehicle model. We show that in the presence of measurement noise, this novel ESO leads to better performance than the linear ESO. Moreover, this type of ESO has much smaller peaking value than the linear ESO under the same tuning gain.
Autors: Zhi-Liang Zhao;Bao-Zhu Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 211 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fully Analog Null Instrument for Resistive Wheatstone Bridge With a Single Resistive Sensor
Abstract:
When high-speed measurements are not necessary, the Wheatstone bridge-based null measurement instruments surpass the Wheatstone Bridge-based instruments using deflection technique, due to the fact that the null method has some intrinsic advantages over the deflection method. In this particle, a fully analog method has been introduced in order to implement a null measurement instrument for a resistive Wheatstone bridge with a single resistive sensor. In order to implement the proposed circuit, only two operational amplifiers and some passive elements have been used. The proposed method can be constructed and implemented by discrete components without any special limitation. Since the suggested scheme has linear output, the required computation in order to measure and display the measurand is reduced dramatically. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance and usefulness of the proposed method, it has been tested experimentally as well as by using computer aided design software.
Autors: Emad Alnasser;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 635 - 640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fully Synthesizable All-Digital RF Transmitter for IoT Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a fully synthesizable all-digital transmitter (ADTX) is first proposed. This transmitter (TX) uses Cartesian architecture and supports wide-band quadratic-amplitude modulation with wide carrier frequency range. Furthermore, the design methodology for ADTX and corresponding bandpass filter is discussed. This TX is synthesized with digital register transfer level-graphic database system flow, and can be easily implemented in any standard CMOS technology. An exemplary TX is synthesized by TSMC 28-nm standard cell library with extremely small area (0.0009 mm2) and supports carrier frequency as high as 6 GHz with excellent error vector magnitude (<−30 dB). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work on a fully synthesizable design of RF transistors, allowing easy technology migration and portability.
Autors: Yilei Li;Kirti Dhwaj;Chien-Heng Wong;Yuan Du;Li Du;Yiwu Tang;Yiyu Shi;Tatsuo Itoh;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 146 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel High-Resolution Optical Instrument for Imaging Oceanic Bubbles
Abstract:
The formation of bubbles from breaking waves has a significant effect on air–sea gas transfer and aerosol production. Detailed data in situ about the bubble populations are required to understand these processes. However, these data are difficult to acquire because bubble populations are complex, spatially inhomogeneous, and short lived. This paper describes the design and development of a novel high-resolution underwater optical instrument for imaging oceanic bubbles at the sea. The instrument was successfully deployed in 2013 as part of the HiWINGS campaign in the North Atlantic Ocean. It contains a high-resolution machine vision camera, strobe flash unit to create a light sheet, and single board computer to control system operation. The instrument is shown to successfully detect bubbles of radii in the range 20–10 000 μm.
Autors: Raied Sarmad Al-Lashi;Steve R. Gunn;Eric G. Webb;Helen Czerski;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 72 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hybrid Excitation Flux Reversal Machine for Electric Vehicle Propulsion
Abstract:
A novel hybrid excitation flux reversal machine (HEFRM) is developed for application in electric vehicle propulsion. The proposed machine has a simple reluctance rotor and a stator with conventional ac armature windings and concentrated dc field windings. Besides, there are also permanent magnets (PMs) on the stator teeth. The PMs on each tooth have the same polarity, and the PMs on the adjacent two teeth have different polarities. In this paper, the feasible slot–pole combinations and equivalent circuits of the HEFRM are introduced, and the influences of several key design parameters such as rotor slot number, ratio of field winding to total winding, ferromagnetic pole arc, stator slot opening ratio, and rotor slot opening ratio on torque density and power factor are investigated by finite-element algorithm. Moreover, to verity the advantages of the hybrid excitation, the torque–speed envelop and power factor–speed envelop of the proposed HEFRM are compared to that of its solely PM excited counterpart. Finally, an HEFRM prototype is built and tested to validate the theoretical analysis.
Autors: Yuting Gao;Dawei Li;Ronghai Qu;Xinggang Fan;Jian Li;Han Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 171 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Image Registration Method Based on Phase Correlation Using Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Mixture of Gaussian
Abstract:
Image registration is a critical process for the various applications in the remote sensing community, and its accuracy greatly affects the results of the subsequent applications. Image registration based on phase correlation has been widely concerned due to its robustness to gray differences and efficiency. After calculating the normalized cross-relation matrix , the most commonly used approach is fitting the 2-D phase plane that passes through the origin, but it needs to remove contaminated spectrum carefully and the corresponding parameters are empirical. In fact, the phase correlation matrix is rank one for a noise-free translation model. This property simplifies the matching problem to finding the best rank-one approximation of the normalized cross-relation matrix. We develop a novel algorithm that performs the rank-one matrix factorization on the phase correlation matrix by assuming its noise as mixture of Gaussian (MoG) distributions. The MoG model is a general approximator for any continuous distribution, and hence is able to model a wide range of noise distribution. The parameters of the MoG model can be evaluated under the framework of maximum likelihood estimation by using an expectation-maximization method, and the subspace is calculated with standard methods. The advantages of the algorithm, high accuracy, and robustness to aliasing, noise, gray difference, and occlusions are illustrated by a series of simulated and real-image experiments.
Autors: Yunyun Dong;Tengfei Long;Weili Jiao;Guojin He;Zhaoming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 446 - 460
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Magnetic Coupling Mechanism for Dynamic Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
A novel magnetic coupling mechanism with steady output and low cost is proposed in this paper. It is composed of n-type power supply rail and dual-phase coil receiver. The conventional I-type power supply rail has advantages of narrow width, large lateral tolerance, and low electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation which are suitable for dynamic wireless charging. The double-D coil is used as the receiver which is also seen as a single-phase coil receiver. However, the induced voltage of the receiver has a sinusoidal variation with large fluctuation and has zero point along driving direction. The dual-phase coil receiver is proposed to solve this issue and enhance the output power simultaneously. Compared with the I-type power supply rail, the n-type power supply rail is proposed to improve the utilization of the magnetic core and reduce the construction cost, which is crucial for commercialization of dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles in the future. The advantages of I-type are also preserved. The enhanced output power of dual-phase coil receiver is verified by circuit analysis. We focus on the influence of the structure size by finite element analysis simulation and the design method of structural parameters is proposed to achieve larger lateral tolerance, greater coupling performance, and lower cost. The structure size is optimized and the analyses are verified by a 10 kW prototype system. The fluctuation of induce voltage has been reduced from 100% to 30%. When the lateral displacement of the receiver is 30 cm at airgap of 20 cm, induced voltage drops by only 30%. The EMF is also measured to ensure safety on the environment.
Autors: Zhiyuan Wang;Shumei Cui;Shouliang Han;Kai Song;Chunbo Zhu;Milyaev Igor Matveevich;Ostanin Sergei Yurievich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 124 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Markov-Based Temporal-SoC Analysis for Characterizing PEV Charging Demand
Abstract:
The integration of a massive number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into current power distribution networks brings direct challenges to network planning, control, and operation. To increase the PEV penetration level with minimal negative impact, the dynamical PEV travel behaviors and charging demand need to be better understood. This paper presents a Markov-based analytical approach for modeling PEV travel behaviors and charging demand. The travel behaviors of individual PEVs are expressed mathematically through Monte Carlo simulation considering two essential factors: temporal travel purposes and state of charge (SoC). Markov model and hidden Markov model (HMM) are adopted to explicitly formulate the probabilistic correlation between multiple PEV states and SoC ranges. This modeling approach provides an efficient and generic tool for analyzing PEV travel behaviors and charging demand based on available PEV statistics. The analytical model is further adopted in the impact assessment of two PEV normal charging scheduling strategies for a range of PEV penetration levels in an IEEE 53-bus test network with field data (network parameters and realistic PEV statistics). The results demonstrate the benefit of the proposed modeling approach in network analysis considering PEV integration.
Autors: Siyang Sun;Qiang Yang;Wenjun Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 156 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Model for Terrain Slope Estimation Using ICESat/GLAS Waveform Data
Abstract:
The accurate estimation of terrain slope is very important for accurately monitoring the elevation and mass changes of glacier using laser altimeter. In this paper, a novel physical model was proposed for accurately estimating within-footprint terrain slope. The new proposed model was built based on overlapping footprints of the geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) data, namely, using altitude angle, footprint size, shape, orientation, terrain aspect, and ground extent. Ground extent estimation models were established on the basis of linear regression analyses between: 1) GLAS-derived waveform extent and airborne topographic mapper (ATM)-derived ground extent and 2) GLAS-derived waveform width and ATM-derived ground extent, respectively. In addition, the terrain slopes estimated from the overlapping footprints were validated by ATM data and compared with the slopes calculated from surface elevations, i.e., from ASTER global digital elevation model (DEM) (GDEM) and GLAS elevation. Results showed that the accuracy of waveform width-predicted ground extents (, RMSE = 0.686 m, , and -value < 0.0001) is higher than that of waveform extent-predicted ground extents (, RMSE = 0.824 m, , and -value < 0.0001), which indicated that waveform width is more suitable for estimating ground extent. Slopes estimated from the new proposed model have a strong consistency with those calculated from ATM data (Corrco- f = 0.786, bias = 0.654°, SD = 1.368°, and RMSE = 1.452°). Additionally, results also indicated that the new proposed model performs much better than the methods based on ASTER GDEM and the GLAS surface elevation in estimating within-footprint terrain slope due to higher correlation, lower bias, standard deviation, and RMSE.
Autors: Sheng Nie;Cheng Wang;Pinliang Dong;Guicai Li;Xiaohuan Xi;Pu Wang;Xuebo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 217 - 227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Multi-Class EEG-Based Sleep Stage Classification System
Abstract:
Sleep stage classification is one of the most critical steps in effective diagnosis and the treatment of sleep-related disorders. Visual inspection undertaken by sleep experts is a time-consuming and burdensome task. A computer-assisted sleep stage classification system is thus essential for both sleep-related disorders diagnosis and sleep monitoring. In this paper, we propose a system to classify the wake and sleep stages with high rates of sensitivity and specificity. The EEG signals of 25 subjects with suspected sleep-disordered breathing, and the EEG signals of 20 healthy subjects from three data sets are used. Every EEG epoch is decomposed into eight subband epochs each of which has a frequency band pertaining to one EEG rhythm (i.e., delta, theta, alpha, sigma, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, or gamma 2). Thirteen features are extracted from each subband epoch. Therefore, 104 features are totally obtained for every EEG epoch. The Kruskal–Wallis test is used to examine the significance of the features. Non-significant features are discarded. The minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance feature selection algorithm is then used to eliminate redundant and irrelevant features. The features selected are classified by a random forest classifier. To set the system parameters and to evaluate the system performance, nested 5-fold cross-validation and subject cross-validation are performed. The performance of our proposed system is evaluated for different multi-class classification problems. The minimum overall accuracy rates obtained are 95.31% and 86.64% for nested 5-fold and subject cross-validation, respectively. The system performance is promising in terms of the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates compared with the ones of the state-of-the-art systems. The proposed system can be used in health care applications with the aim of improving sleep stage classification.
Autors: Pejman Memar;Farhad Faradji;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 84 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel PU Sensing Algorithm for Constant Energy Signals
Abstract:
In this correspondence, a novel spectrum sensing technique is proposed for primary user (PU) signals transmitted with constant energy. A new metric, namely the variance of the received signal energy, is first introduced and then used as the testing variable for detecting the PU signal. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by means of theoretical analysis and simulations in the presence of noise uncertainty. The results confirm the efficiency of our method for fast and reliable PUs’ detection in cognitive radio systems.
Autors: Francesco Benedetto;Gaetano Giunta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 827 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Technique Based on Deep Learning and a Synthetic Target Database for Classification of Urban Areas in PolSAR Data
Abstract:
The classification of urban areas in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data is a challenging task. Moreover, urban structures oriented away from the radar line of sight pose an additional complexity in the classification process. The characterization of such areas is important for disaster relief and urban sprawl monitoring applications. In this paper, a novel technique based on deep learning is proposed, which leverages a synthetic target database for data augmentation. The PolSAR dataset is rotated by uniform steps and collated to form a reference database. A stacked autoencoder network is used to transform the information in the augmented dataset into a compact representation. This significantly improves the generalization capabilities of the network. Finally, the classification is performed by a multilayer perceptron network. The modular architecture allows for easy optimization of the hyperparameters. The synthetic target database is created and the classification performance is evaluated on an L-band airborne UAVSAR dataset and L-band space-borne ALOS-2 dataset acquired over San Francisco, USA. The proposed technique shows an overall accuracy of . An improvement over state-of-the-art techniques is achieved, especially in urban areas rotated away from the radar line of sight.
Autors: Shaunak De;Lorenzo Bruzzone;Avik Bhattacharya;Francesca Bovolo;Subhasis Chaudhuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 154 - 170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Transmission Scheme for the $K$ -User Broadcast Channel With Delayed CSIT
Abstract:
The state-dependent -user memoryless broadcast channel (BC) with state feedback is investigated. We propose a novel transmission scheme and derive its corresponding achievable rate region, which, compared with some general schemes that deal with feedback, has the advantage of being relatively simple and thus is easy to evaluate. In particular, we show that the proposed scheme achieves the capacity region of the symmetric erasure BC with an arbitrary input alphabet size. For the fading Gaussian BC, numerical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms existing schemes in terms of symmetric rate. Our analysis also proves its optimality at high signal-to-noise ratio, in terms of degrees of freedom.
Autors: Chao He;Sheng Yang;Pablo Piantanida;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 386 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Two-Stage Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier for Wireless Applications
Abstract:
Broadband and highly efficient amplifiers are of great interest in modern wireless communication systems. In this paper, we present a novel two-stage broadband Doherty power amplifier (DPA), which is able to maintain high efficiency at saturated output power and at backoff output power levels over a wide bandwidth. The amplifier uses a novel and simple approach to achieve bandwidth enhancement and at the same time uses a driver amplifier. We employ Klopfenstein taper to deliver wide bandwidth. The measurement results show that the proposed broadband two-stage DPA is able to deliver 31%–35% drain efficiency at 6-dB output power backoff while at the saturation it achieves 40%–55% drain efficiency over the designed bandwidth of 1.5 to 2.6 GHz. The amplifier can deliver above 35-dBm output power with substantial gain of around 20 dB. The proposed DPA is a promising candidate for wideband and high gain requirements in modern wireless systems.
Autors: Muhammad Saad Khan;Hongxin Zhang;Xueli Wang;Rahat Ullah;Ibrar Ahmad;Sulman Shahzad;Qasim Ali Arain;Muhammad Zahid Tunio;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 40 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Ultra-Lightweight Multiband Rectenna on Paper for RF Energy Harvesting in the Next Generation LTE Bands
Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel compact ultralightweight multiband RF energy harvester fabricated on a paper substrate. The proposed rectenna is designed to operate in all recently released LTE bands (range 0.79–0.96 GHz; 1.71–2.17 GHz; and 2.5–2.69 GHz). High compactness and ease of integration between antenna and rectifier are achieved by using a topology of nested annular slots. The proposed rectifier features an RF-to-dc conversion efficiency in the range of 5%–16% for an available input power of −20 dBm in all bands of interest, which increases up to 11%–30% at −15 dBm. The rectenna has been finally tested both in laboratory and in realistic scenarios featuring a superior performance to other state-of-the-art RF harvesters on flexible substrates.
Autors: Valentina Palazzi;Jimmy Hester;Jo Bito;Federico Alimenti;Christos Kalialakis;Ana Collado;Paolo Mezzanotte;Apostolos Georgiadis;Luca Roselli;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 366 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Wide Duty Cycle Range Wide Band High Frequency Isolated Gate Driver for Power Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel single source fed isolated gate driver circuit based on the dual-forward converter topology. The two forward converters are paralleled at the secondary side to achieve 0%–100 duty cycle range together with galvanic isolation. The gate driver switching frequency is independent of the main pulse-width modulation frequency (PWM). As a result, the gate driver switching devices and magnetics are designed for high frequencies independent of the main PWM frequency. At high frequencies, problems of resonance due to parasitics become significant. This paper discusses this problem and proposes a novel solution to mitigate it. In addition, this paper also presents a novel solution and circuit to produce negative gate pulse for miller clamp. The proposed circuit can be used for any application, irrespective of switching frequency, thus making it a wide band generalized gate driver. The circuit is analyzed and verified experimentally.
Autors: B. Satish Naik;S. Shan;L. Umanand;B. Subba Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 437 - 446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parametric Computational Model of the Action Potential of Pacemaker Cells
Abstract:
Objective: A flexible, efficient, and verifiable pacemaker cell model is essential to the design of real-time virtual hearts that can be used for closed-loop validation of cardiac devices. A new parametric model of pacemaker action potential is developed to address this need. Methods: The action potential phases are modeled using hybrid automaton with one piecewise-linear continuous variable. The model can capture rate-dependent dynamics, such as action potential duration restitution, conduction velocity restitution, and overdrive suppression by incorporating nonlinear update functions. Simulated dynamics of the model compared well with previous models and clinical data. Conclusion: The results show that the parametric model can reproduce the electrophysiological dynamics of a variety of pacemaker cells, such as sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, and the His-Purkinje system, under varying cardiac conditions. Significance: This is an important contribution toward closed-loop validation of cardiac devices using real-time heart models.
Autors: Weiwei Ai;Nitish D. Patel;Partha S. Roop;Avinash Malik;Sidharta Andalam;Eugene Yip;Nathan Allen;Mark L. Trew;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 123 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Part of the Energy "In Crowd": Changing People's Energy Behavior via Group-Based Approaches
Abstract:
One of the most critical and pressing solutions needed to address global climate change is the transition to secure, affordable, and sustainable-energy systems. This transition is usually considered a technological challenge because it involves the integration of renewable energy, a trend toward decentralizing energy generation, and more demandside participation. However, involving consumers in the transition is crucial for its success. For example, sustainable-energy transitions may require consumers to adopt sustainable-energy sources, technologies, and energy-efficiency measures as well as change their direct and indirect energy use behaviors to the limited and fluctuating supply of (renewable) energy. However, such behaviors may not always be easy for consumers to adopt, as they can entail personal sacrifice and discomfort or require them to change habits or infrastructure, which can be cognitively and financially demanding. To guarantee a sustainable future for all, it is critical that we understand what motivates consumers' energy behaviors and how we can promote consumers' motivation to engage in sustainable-energy behaviors and act beyond immediate personal interests.
Autors: Lise Jans;Thijs Bouman;Kelly Fielding;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 35 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physical Model for Metal–Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Under Gate-Bias and Illumination Stress
Abstract:
A negative shift in the turn-on voltage of a metal–oxide thin-film transistor under negative gate-bias and illumination stress has been frequently reported. The stretched-exponential equation, predicated largely on a charge-trapping mechanism, has been commonly used to fit the time dependence of the shift. The fitting parameters, some with unsubstantiated physical origin, are extracted by curve fitting. A more physically based model is presently formulated, incorporating the photogeneration, transport, and trapping of holes. The model parameters of generation energy barrier, hole mobility, and trapping time constant are extracted from the measured gate-bias dependent turn-on voltage shift. It is theoretically deduced and experimentally verified that the degradation kinetics is either generation or transport limited. The model can be further applied to explain the attenuated shift under positive bias and illumination stress, if the screening of the electric field emanating from the gate bias is also accounted for. From the effects of asymmetric source/drain bias applied during stress, it is deduced that the trapping is localized along the length of the channel interface. The turn-on voltage of a transistor after such stress is constrained by the portion of the channel exhibiting the smallest shift.
Autors: Jiapeng Li;Lei Lu;Rongsheng Chen;Hoi-Sing Kwok;Man Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 142 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physical Modeling of TiO2 Nanotube Array-Based Capacitive Vapor Sensor
Abstract:
A physical model was developed to estimate the capacitance and capacitive response of electrochemically grown ordered and self-organized TiO2 nanotube array based sandwich structured vapor sensor device (Au/TiO2 nanotube /Ti). Nanotubes were modeled in hexagonal grid geometry considering its structural and morphological parameters. Five different capacitances, i.e., capacitance due to TiO2 solid (Cn), free space in bulk (Cf), Au/TiO2 junction (Cju), Ti/TiO2 junction (Cjd), and internal capacitances between two adjacent nanotubes (Cz) were formulated, simplified, and represented in a complex capacitive network. Equivalent device capacitance (Ceq) was calculated by solving the charge-voltage equations through matrix method. Simulated capacitance (Ceq) and capacitive response (R C) of Au/TiO2 nanotube /Ti device towards different organic vapors were compared with practically measured values obtained by impedance analysis method.
Autors: Arnab Hazra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 93 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Portable 3-D Imaging FMCW MIMO Radar Demonstrator With a $24times 24$ Antenna Array for Medium-Range Applications
Abstract:
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars have been shown to improve target detection for surveillance applications thanks to their proven high-performance properties. In this paper, the design, implementation, and results of a complete 3-D imaging frequency-modulated continuous-wave MIMO radar demonstrator are presented. The radar sensor working frequency range spans between 16 and 17 GHz, and the proposed solution is based on a 24-transmitter and 24-receiver MIMO radar architecture, implemented by time-division multiplexing of the transmit signals. A modular approach based on conventional low-cost printed circuit boards is used for the transmit and receive systems. Using digital beamforming algorithms and radar processing techniques on the received signals, a high-resolution 3-D sensing of the range, azimuth, and elevation can be calculated. With the current antenna configuration, an angular resolution of 2.9° can be reached. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the 1-GHz bandwidth of the system, a range resolution of 0.5 m is achieved. The radio-frequency front-end, digital system and radar signal processing units are here presented. The medium-range surveillance potential and the high-resolution capabilities of the MIMO radar are proved with results in the form of radar images captured from the field measurements.
Autors: Alexander Ganis;Enric Miralles Navarro;Bernhard Schoenlinner;Ulrich Prechtel;Askold Meusling;Christoph Heller;Thomas Spreng;Jan Mietzner;Christian Krimmer;Babette Haeberle;Steffen Lutz;Mirko Loghi;Angel Belenguer;Hector Esteban;Volker Ziegler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 298 - 312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Practical Layered Multiplexed-Coded Relaying Scheme for Wireless Multicast
Abstract:
We design and implement a practical layered multiplexed-coded decode-forward (LMDF) relaying strategy for a wide-band wireless multicast network. The proposed LMDF scheme relies on layering at the source, with the individual layers provided unequal power allocation through a simple bit-mapping operation to quadrature amplitude modulation constellations. At the relay, LMDF utilizes a multiplexed-coded approach that, with a single transmission, caters for the disparity in the number of layers decoded at different destinations. Under a practical setup of hard-decision decoding and coding across the subcarriers of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated transmissions, we derive the information theoretic achievable rates of LMDF and use the IEEE 802.11 TGn channel model for performance evaluations. LMDF is then implemented using convolutional codes, with the relay's code optimized specifically keeping its multiplexed nature in mind. In addition to simulations, we also evaluate the performance of LMDF through a system-level implementation by using the National Instruments USRPs 2921. We conduct over-the-air experiments in an indoor office environment using an OFDM-based physical layer, and illustrate the considerable performance benefits of LMDF over benchmarks such as conventional two-hop decode-forward.
Autors: Khurram Mazher;Umar Bin Farooq;Jawwad Nasar Chattha;Momin Uppal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 554 - 566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Practical Truncation Correction Method for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
Abstract:
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) mammography is a promising imaging technique for detecting early-stage breast cancers. However, DBT imaging usually contains truncation artifacts around the chest wall area, where many recurring breast tumors or masses are located. Extrapolation or interpolation and weighting techniques are used to suppress artifacts in existing methods, but these are inappropriate for DBT due to its high spatial resolution requirement. To solve this problem, we propose a practical truncation correction method, which can realize simultaneous truncation artifact reduction and image reconstruction (STARIR) for DBT. In contrast to extrapolation or interpolation estimations and weighting strategy, this integrated method renews each truncated voxel by considering the information of all measured projections rather than that of one projection at each reconstruction iteration. Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on simulated and realistic DBT data to validate the proposed method. Results showed that STARIR reduces truncation artifacts and preserves tissue details in reconstructed images more effectively than do the current methods. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous and accurate truncation artifact reduction and image reconstruction in DBT.
Autors: Shuyu Wu;Zijia Chen;Jianhui Ma;Genggeng Qin;Bin Li;Hongliang Qi;Linghong Zhou;Yuan Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 621 - 629
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Precision Wideband Quadrature Generation Technique With Feedback Control for Millimeter-Wave Communication Systems
Abstract:
An integrated two-stage polyphase filter (PPF) with feedback control for quadrature local oscillator generation at millimeter-wave frequencies is described. To minimize the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) mismatch, the second stage of the PPF utilizes triode-region nMOS transistors to implement variable resistors where the resistance is precisely controlled by modulating the shared gate-to-source bias voltage at the gate of nMOS devices. The gate bias voltage of the triode-region devices is set by a feedback loop which changes with variations in process, voltage, and temperature. A prototype quadrature signal generator, employing this PPF design, is integrated in a 28-nm LP CMOS process. A worst case measured phase/amplitude imbalance of 2°/0.32 dB (typical-typical corner dies) and 2.2°/0.55 dB (slow-slow corner dies) is reported over 7-GHz bandwidth for a fixed control current (). By retuning at every 7 GHz, this IQ generator would maintain the measured quadrature accuracy from 55 to 70 GHz. The core area occupied by the IQ generator circuitry is and the device consumes less than , of which 120/ comes from the feedback control-loop/opamp, respectively. The proposed PPF method has a simulated input impedance of in-parallel with 18 fF.
Autors: Tong Zhang;Ali Najafi;Mazhareddin Taghivand;Jacques Christophe Rudell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 215 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A PV Residential Microinverter With Grid-Support Function: Design, Implementation, and Field Testing
Abstract:
Microinverter-based photovoltaic (PV) systems now represent about 8% of the U.S. residential market, and offer many advantages including safety, performance, and simplified installation. The next-generation of PV microinverter will include more ancillary functions to support grid stability and reliability in more distributed generation smart-grid systems. A commercial ready PV microinverter not only focuses on efficiency and cost, but also on reliability, manufacturability, compliance of various grid-code, and electromagnetic interference regulations. This paper presents a detailed design and development process of a microinverter system from concept all the way to final commercial-ready prototype. Various design tradeoffs such as topology, control, filter solutions and power supplies, and mechanical packaging are provided. The required prototype testing and final system field tests are also presented. The presented design and test process intends to accelerate the future microinverter system design and development toward a commercial ready product.
Autors: Dong Dong;Mohammed S. Agamy;Maja Harfman-Todorovic;Xiaohu Liu;Luis Garces;Rui Zhou;Philip Cioffi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 469 - 481
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Quadratically Constrained Stochastic Gradient Algorithm for Beamforming in Mobile Communications
Abstract:
This brief presents a new adaptive beamforming algorithm for mobile communication systems with antenna arrays. Such an algorithm belongs to the constrained stochastic gradient class of algorithms, in which the maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) is carried out by using stochastic gradient optimization strategies along with instantaneous cost functions related to the SINR. The main novelty of the proposed algorithm is the use of an adaptive quadratic constraint that allows obtaining enhanced solutions for both transient and steady-state phases of the iterative process. As a consequence, the proposed algorithm, termed adaptive-projection quadratically constrained stochastic gradient (AP-QCSG) algorithm, is capable of outperforming other constrained stochastic gradient (CSG) algorithms from the literature. Simulation results are presented aiming to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Ciro André Pitz;Eduardo Luiz Ortiz Batista;Rui Seara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 125 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Radiation-Hardened and ESD-Optimized Wireline Driver With Wide Terminal Common-Mode Voltage Range
Abstract:
In complex environment, the wireline voltage driver should be compatible with wide-terminal common-mode range, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and radiation interference. The most vulnerable devices in the conventional driver are the nMOS transistor and the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) against negative the ESD shock, total dose radiation, and single-event latch-up. In this paper, a reliable wireline driver circuit is proposed compatible with −7 ~ 12-V terminal common-mode voltage range. By adopting face-to-face diodes, pMOS/n-p-n hybrid driver, and Schottky diodes, the proposed driver circuit demonstrates significant protection level improvement for both ESD and radiation. Both the reference SCR-based driver and the proposed driver with the optimized circuit design and protection strategy are fabricated using a 0.6- bipolar-CMOS-DMOS process. Due to a simpler circuit structure, the proposed output stage has about 10% less chip area. According to the measurement results, the human-body-model ESD level of 3 kV, total dose radiation level of 100 krad(Si), and single-event effect level of 75 MeVcm2/mg are achieved in the proposed design to satisfy complex environment applications.
Autors: Xun Xiang;Xingguo Gao;Fan Liu;Mingdong Li;Shalin Huang;Xuewen Chen;Xichuan Zhou;Shengdong Hu;Zhi Lin;Amine Bermak;Fang Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 566 - 572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable 10-to-12-b 80-to-20-MS/s Bandwidth Scalable SAR ADC
Abstract:
An asynchronous successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for wideband multi-standard systems is presented. The ADC can be configured as an 80-MS/s 10-b, 40-MS/s 11-b, or 20-MS/s 12-b converter. Time-interleaved technique is applied to expand sampling bandwidth exponentially while resolution scales down. The channel mismatches are cancelled by the digital calibration technique. The bulk-biasing technique is used in the sampling switch to reduce the influence of the charge injection caused by the top-plate sampling. In addition, the configurable asynchronous processing is employed to extend the flexibility of speed and resolution tradeoff. Moreover, the two-step digital-to-analog converter (DAC) switching method is proposed to reduce the switching energy of the DAC. Prototyped in 180-nm CMOS process, the ADC achieves the 56.7-/61.2-/64.6-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) and 72.3-/74.8-/75.5-dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) at 80-/40-/20-MHz sampling frequency with the power consumption of 2.61/2.05/1.77 mW.
Autors: Yi Shen;Zhangming Zhu;Shubin Liu;Yintang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 51 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable Filtering Antenna With Integrated Bandpass Filters for UWB/WLAN Applications
Abstract:
This communication presents a new reconfigurable filtering monopole antenna design with three switchable states for UWB/WLAN applications. The antenna has three independent ports for ultra-wideband state, 2.4 GHz WLAN narrowband state, and 5.8 GHz WLAN narrowband state, respectively. The narrowband state at 2.4 GHz is produced by a first-order microstrip filter using an open-loop resonator, and the narrowband state around 5.8 GHz is obtained by involving a third-order hairpin bandpass filter in the RF path. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved by RF path selection using dc controlled p-i-n diodes. As a result, narrowband filtering responses at desired frequency bands can be achieved. One antenna prototype is simulated, fabricated, and measured. Measured reflection coefficients and radiation patterns demonstrate that the proposed reconfigurable filtering antenna is an eligible candidate for future multifunctional systems incorporating both UWB and WLAN systems.
Autors: Jingya Deng;Simin Hou;Luyu Zhao;Lixin Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 401 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 

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